The phase of the signals backscattered by the ultrahigh frequency radio-frequency identification (UHF-RFID) tags is generally more insensitive to multipath propagation than the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). However, signal phase measurements are inherently ambiguous and could be further affected by the unknown phase offsets added by the transponders. As a result, the localization of an agent by using only signal phase measurements looks infeasible. In this article, it is shown instead that the design of a dynamic position estimator (e.g., a Kalman filter) based only on the signal phase measurement is actually possible. To this end, the necessary conditions to ensure the theoretical local nonlinear observability are first demonstrated. However, a system that is locally observable guarantees the convergence of the localization algorithm only if the actual initial agent position is approximately known a priori . Therefore, the second part of the analysis covers the global observability, which ensures convergence starting from any initial condition in the state space. It is important to emphasize that complete observability holds only in theory. In fact, measurement uncertainty may greatly affect position estimation convergence. The validity of the analysis and the practicality of this localization approach are further confirmed by numerical simulations based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF).

Ranging-free UHF-RFID Robot Positioning through Phase Measurements of Passive Tags / Magnago, Valerio; Palopoli, Luigi; Buffi, Alice; Tellini, Bernardo; Motroni, Andrea; Nepa, Paolo; Macii, David; Fontanelli, Daniele. - In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT. - ISSN 0018-9456. - STAMPA. - 2020, 69:5(2020), pp. 2408-2418. [10.1109/TIM.2019.2960900]

Ranging-free UHF-RFID Robot Positioning through Phase Measurements of Passive Tags

Magnago, Valerio;Palopoli, Luigi;Macii, David;Fontanelli, Daniele
2020-01-01

Abstract

The phase of the signals backscattered by the ultrahigh frequency radio-frequency identification (UHF-RFID) tags is generally more insensitive to multipath propagation than the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). However, signal phase measurements are inherently ambiguous and could be further affected by the unknown phase offsets added by the transponders. As a result, the localization of an agent by using only signal phase measurements looks infeasible. In this article, it is shown instead that the design of a dynamic position estimator (e.g., a Kalman filter) based only on the signal phase measurement is actually possible. To this end, the necessary conditions to ensure the theoretical local nonlinear observability are first demonstrated. However, a system that is locally observable guarantees the convergence of the localization algorithm only if the actual initial agent position is approximately known a priori . Therefore, the second part of the analysis covers the global observability, which ensures convergence starting from any initial condition in the state space. It is important to emphasize that complete observability holds only in theory. In fact, measurement uncertainty may greatly affect position estimation convergence. The validity of the analysis and the practicality of this localization approach are further confirmed by numerical simulations based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF).
2020
5
Magnago, Valerio; Palopoli, Luigi; Buffi, Alice; Tellini, Bernardo; Motroni, Andrea; Nepa, Paolo; Macii, David; Fontanelli, Daniele
Ranging-free UHF-RFID Robot Positioning through Phase Measurements of Passive Tags / Magnago, Valerio; Palopoli, Luigi; Buffi, Alice; Tellini, Bernardo; Motroni, Andrea; Nepa, Paolo; Macii, David; Fontanelli, Daniele. - In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT. - ISSN 0018-9456. - STAMPA. - 2020, 69:5(2020), pp. 2408-2418. [10.1109/TIM.2019.2960900]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/257290
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