Cryptosporidium parvum is a globally distributed zoonotic pathogen and a major cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and ruminants. The parasite's life cycle comprises an obligatory sexual phase, during which genetic exchanges can occur between previously isolated lineages. Here, we compare 32 whole genome sequences from human- and ruminant-derived parasite isolates collected across Europe, Egypt and China. We identify three strongly supported clusters that comprise a mix of isolates from different host species, geographic origins, and subtypes. We show that: (1) recombination occurs between ruminant isolates into human isolates; (2) these recombinant regions can be passed on to other human subtypes through gene flow and population admixture; (3) there have been multiple genetic exchanges, and most are probably recent; (4) putative virulence genes are significantly enriched within these genetic exchanges, and (5) this results in an increase in their nucleotide diversity. We carefully dissect the phylogenetic sequence of two genetic exchanges, illustrating the long-term evolutionary consequences of these events. Our results suggest that increased globalization and close human-animal contacts increase the opportunity for genetic exchanges between previously isolated parasite lineages, resulting in spillover and spillback events. We discuss how this can provide a novel substrate for natural selection at genes involved in host-parasite interactions, thereby potentially altering the dynamic coevolutionary equilibrium in the Red Queens arms race.

Recent genetic exchanges and admixture shape the genome and population structure of the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum / Corsi, Giulia I; Tichkule, Swapnil; Sannella, Anna Rosa; Vatta, Paolo; Asnicar, Francesco; Segata, Nicola; Jex, Aaron R; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cacciò, Simone M. - In: MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. - ISSN 1365-294X. - 2022:(2022), pp. 1-13. [10.1111/mec.16556]

Recent genetic exchanges and admixture shape the genome and population structure of the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum

Asnicar, Francesco;Segata, Nicola;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Cryptosporidium parvum is a globally distributed zoonotic pathogen and a major cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and ruminants. The parasite's life cycle comprises an obligatory sexual phase, during which genetic exchanges can occur between previously isolated lineages. Here, we compare 32 whole genome sequences from human- and ruminant-derived parasite isolates collected across Europe, Egypt and China. We identify three strongly supported clusters that comprise a mix of isolates from different host species, geographic origins, and subtypes. We show that: (1) recombination occurs between ruminant isolates into human isolates; (2) these recombinant regions can be passed on to other human subtypes through gene flow and population admixture; (3) there have been multiple genetic exchanges, and most are probably recent; (4) putative virulence genes are significantly enriched within these genetic exchanges, and (5) this results in an increase in their nucleotide diversity. We carefully dissect the phylogenetic sequence of two genetic exchanges, illustrating the long-term evolutionary consequences of these events. Our results suggest that increased globalization and close human-animal contacts increase the opportunity for genetic exchanges between previously isolated parasite lineages, resulting in spillover and spillback events. We discuss how this can provide a novel substrate for natural selection at genes involved in host-parasite interactions, thereby potentially altering the dynamic coevolutionary equilibrium in the Red Queens arms race.
2022
Corsi, Giulia I; Tichkule, Swapnil; Sannella, Anna Rosa; Vatta, Paolo; Asnicar, Francesco; Segata, Nicola; Jex, Aaron R; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cacciò, Simone M
Recent genetic exchanges and admixture shape the genome and population structure of the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum / Corsi, Giulia I; Tichkule, Swapnil; Sannella, Anna Rosa; Vatta, Paolo; Asnicar, Francesco; Segata, Nicola; Jex, Aaron R; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cacciò, Simone M. - In: MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. - ISSN 1365-294X. - 2022:(2022), pp. 1-13. [10.1111/mec.16556]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/355203
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