Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin, the major cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. It is able to activate the host defense system through interaction with Toll-like receptor 4, thus triggering pro-inflammatory mechanisms. A large amount of LPS induces inappropriate activation of the immune system, triggering an exaggerated inflammatory response and consequent extensive organ injury, providing the basis of sepsis damage. In this review, we will briefly describe endotoxin's molecular structure and its main pathogenetic action during sepsis. In addition, we will summarize the main different available methods for endotoxin detection with a special focus on the wider spectrum offered by omics technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and promising applications of these in the identification of specific biomarkers for sepsis.

Endotoxin in Sepsis: Methods for LPS Detection and the Use of Omics Techniques / Virzì, Grazia Maria; Mattiotti, Maria; de Cal, Massimo; Ronco, Claudio; Zanella, Monica; De Rosa, Silvia. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 13:1(2023), pp. 7901-7917. [10.3390/diagnostics13010079]

Endotoxin in Sepsis: Methods for LPS Detection and the Use of Omics Techniques

De Rosa, Silvia
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin, the major cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. It is able to activate the host defense system through interaction with Toll-like receptor 4, thus triggering pro-inflammatory mechanisms. A large amount of LPS induces inappropriate activation of the immune system, triggering an exaggerated inflammatory response and consequent extensive organ injury, providing the basis of sepsis damage. In this review, we will briefly describe endotoxin's molecular structure and its main pathogenetic action during sepsis. In addition, we will summarize the main different available methods for endotoxin detection with a special focus on the wider spectrum offered by omics technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and promising applications of these in the identification of specific biomarkers for sepsis.
2023
1
Virzì, Grazia Maria; Mattiotti, Maria; de Cal, Massimo; Ronco, Claudio; Zanella, Monica; De Rosa, Silvia
Endotoxin in Sepsis: Methods for LPS Detection and the Use of Omics Techniques / Virzì, Grazia Maria; Mattiotti, Maria; de Cal, Massimo; Ronco, Claudio; Zanella, Monica; De Rosa, Silvia. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 13:1(2023), pp. 7901-7917. [10.3390/diagnostics13010079]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/364223
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