Modern societies produce ever-increasing amounts of waste, e.g. organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). According to the best available techniques, OFMSW should be treated through anaerobic digestion to recover biogas and subsequently composted. An innovative scheme is under investigation, where anaerobic digestion is combined with hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and composting. The final product, referred to as hydrochar co-compost (HCO), is under study to be used as an unconventional soil improver/fertilizer. Recent studies showed that HCO is not phytotoxic. However, nothing is known about the toxicity of HCO on cells as part and organisms as a whole. This study aims to investigate in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the HCO and its precursors in the production process. In particular, we tested water and methanolic extracts of HCO (WEHCO and MEHCO) from one side and methanolic extracts of hydrochar (MEH) and OFMSW digestate (MED) as well as liquor produced downstream HTC (HTCL) from the other side. Genotoxicity was investigated using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in Chinese Hamster Ovarian K1 (CHO-K1) cells. Cytotoxicity was tested in vitro against a panel of human cells line. Zebrafish embryo toxicity upon MEH treatment was also investigated. Results show that incubation of CHO-K1 cells with all the tested samples at different concentrations did not cause any induction of micronucleus formation compared to the vehicle-treated control. Treatment of cells with MEH, MED, HTCL and MEHCO, but not WEHCO, induced some degree of cytotoxicity and MEH showed to be more cytotoxic against tested cells compared to the MEHCO. Toxicity effect at the highest tested concentrations of MEH on zebrafish embryos resulted in coagulation, induction of pericardial edema and death. In conclusion, the hydrochar co-compost cytotoxicity is similar to standard compost cytotoxicity. Hence composting the hydrochar from OFMSW digestate is a good step to eliminate the cytotoxicity of hydrochar.

Hydrochar and hydrochar co-compost from OFMSW digestate for soil application: 3. Toxicological evaluation / Al-Naqeb, Ghanya; Sidarovich, Viktoryia; Scrinzi, Donato; Mazzeo, Ilaria; Robbiati, Sergio; Pancher, Michael; Fiori, Luca; Adami, Valentina. - In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. - ISSN 1095-8630. - 320:(2022), p. 115910. [10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115910]

Hydrochar and hydrochar co-compost from OFMSW digestate for soil application: 3. Toxicological evaluation

Al-Naqeb, Ghanya;Sidarovich, Viktoryia;Scrinzi, Donato;Mazzeo, Ilaria;Robbiati, Sergio;Pancher, Michael;Fiori, Luca;Adami, Valentina
2022-01-01

Abstract

Modern societies produce ever-increasing amounts of waste, e.g. organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). According to the best available techniques, OFMSW should be treated through anaerobic digestion to recover biogas and subsequently composted. An innovative scheme is under investigation, where anaerobic digestion is combined with hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and composting. The final product, referred to as hydrochar co-compost (HCO), is under study to be used as an unconventional soil improver/fertilizer. Recent studies showed that HCO is not phytotoxic. However, nothing is known about the toxicity of HCO on cells as part and organisms as a whole. This study aims to investigate in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the HCO and its precursors in the production process. In particular, we tested water and methanolic extracts of HCO (WEHCO and MEHCO) from one side and methanolic extracts of hydrochar (MEH) and OFMSW digestate (MED) as well as liquor produced downstream HTC (HTCL) from the other side. Genotoxicity was investigated using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in Chinese Hamster Ovarian K1 (CHO-K1) cells. Cytotoxicity was tested in vitro against a panel of human cells line. Zebrafish embryo toxicity upon MEH treatment was also investigated. Results show that incubation of CHO-K1 cells with all the tested samples at different concentrations did not cause any induction of micronucleus formation compared to the vehicle-treated control. Treatment of cells with MEH, MED, HTCL and MEHCO, but not WEHCO, induced some degree of cytotoxicity and MEH showed to be more cytotoxic against tested cells compared to the MEHCO. Toxicity effect at the highest tested concentrations of MEH on zebrafish embryos resulted in coagulation, induction of pericardial edema and death. In conclusion, the hydrochar co-compost cytotoxicity is similar to standard compost cytotoxicity. Hence composting the hydrochar from OFMSW digestate is a good step to eliminate the cytotoxicity of hydrochar.
2022
Al-Naqeb, Ghanya; Sidarovich, Viktoryia; Scrinzi, Donato; Mazzeo, Ilaria; Robbiati, Sergio; Pancher, Michael; Fiori, Luca; Adami, Valentina
Hydrochar and hydrochar co-compost from OFMSW digestate for soil application: 3. Toxicological evaluation / Al-Naqeb, Ghanya; Sidarovich, Viktoryia; Scrinzi, Donato; Mazzeo, Ilaria; Robbiati, Sergio; Pancher, Michael; Fiori, Luca; Adami, Valentina. - In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. - ISSN 1095-8630. - 320:(2022), p. 115910. [10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115910]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/352742
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact