Postnatal development of the brain is characterized by sensitive windows during which, local circuitry are drastically reshaped by life experiences. These critical periods (CPs) occur at different time points for different brain functions, presenting redundant physiological changes in the underlying brain regions. Although circuits malleability during CPs provides a valuable window of opportunity for adaptive fine-tuning to the living environment, this aspect of neurodevelopment also represents a phase of increased vulnerability for the development of a variety of disorders. Consistently, accumulating epidemiological studies point to adverse childhood experience as a major risk factor for many medical conditions, especially stress- and anxiety-related conditions. Thanks to creative approaches to manipulate rodents' rearing environment, neurobiologist have uncovered a pivotal interaction between CPs and early-life experiences, offering an interesting landscape to improve our understanding of brain disorders. In this short review, we discuss how early-life experience impacts cellular and molecular players involved in CPs of development, translating into long-lasting behavioral consequences in rodents. Bringing together findings from multiple laboratories, we delineate a unifying theory in which systemic factors dynamically target the maturation of brain functions based on adaptive needs, shifting the balance between resilience and vulnerability in response to the quality of the rearing environment.

At the Crossroad Between Resiliency and Fragility: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on Early-Life Experiences / Chelini, Gabriele; Pangrazzi, Luca; Bozzi, Yuri. - In: FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE. - ISSN 1662-5102. - 16:(2022), pp. 8638661-8638668. [10.3389/fncel.2022.863866]

At the Crossroad Between Resiliency and Fragility: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on Early-Life Experiences

Chelini, Gabriele;Pangrazzi, Luca;Bozzi, Yuri
2022-01-01

Abstract

Postnatal development of the brain is characterized by sensitive windows during which, local circuitry are drastically reshaped by life experiences. These critical periods (CPs) occur at different time points for different brain functions, presenting redundant physiological changes in the underlying brain regions. Although circuits malleability during CPs provides a valuable window of opportunity for adaptive fine-tuning to the living environment, this aspect of neurodevelopment also represents a phase of increased vulnerability for the development of a variety of disorders. Consistently, accumulating epidemiological studies point to adverse childhood experience as a major risk factor for many medical conditions, especially stress- and anxiety-related conditions. Thanks to creative approaches to manipulate rodents' rearing environment, neurobiologist have uncovered a pivotal interaction between CPs and early-life experiences, offering an interesting landscape to improve our understanding of brain disorders. In this short review, we discuss how early-life experience impacts cellular and molecular players involved in CPs of development, translating into long-lasting behavioral consequences in rodents. Bringing together findings from multiple laboratories, we delineate a unifying theory in which systemic factors dynamically target the maturation of brain functions based on adaptive needs, shifting the balance between resilience and vulnerability in response to the quality of the rearing environment.
2022
Chelini, Gabriele; Pangrazzi, Luca; Bozzi, Yuri
At the Crossroad Between Resiliency and Fragility: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on Early-Life Experiences / Chelini, Gabriele; Pangrazzi, Luca; Bozzi, Yuri. - In: FRONTIERS IN CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE. - ISSN 1662-5102. - 16:(2022), pp. 8638661-8638668. [10.3389/fncel.2022.863866]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/340894
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