The objective of this work was to study the effect of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and characteristics of individual cows (parity, days in milk and daily milk yield) on the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses produced under controlled conditions from the milk of individual cows of the Brown Swiss breed. One hundred and fifty model cheeses were selected from a total of 1,272 produced for a wider study of the phenotypic and genetic variability of Brown Swiss cows. In our study, we selected 30 herds representing 5 different dairy systems. The cows sampled presented different milk yields (12.3-43.2 kg×d-1), stages of lactation (10-412 days in milk) and parity (1-7). A total of 55 volatile compounds were detected by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including 14 alcohols, 13 esters, 11 free fatty acids, 8 ketones, 4 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 1 terpene and 1 pyrazine. The most important sources of variation in the volatile organic profiles of model cheeses were dairy system (18 compounds) and days in milk (10 compounds), followed by parity (3 compounds) and milk yield (5 compounds). The model cheeses produced from the milk of tied cows reared on traditional farms had lower quantities of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, and dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one than those reared in free stalls on modern farms. Of these, milk from farms using total mixed ration had higher a content of alcohols (hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol) and esters (ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and a lower content of acetic acid than those using separate feeds. Moreover, the dairy systems that added silage to the total mixed ration produced cheeses with lower levels of volatile organic compounds, in particular alcohols (butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol), than those that did not. The amounts of butan-2-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl-2-methylpropanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and 6-propyloxan-2-one increased linearly during lactation, while octan-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 2-butoxyethanol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine showed a more complex pattern during lactation. The effect of the number of lactations (parity) was significant for octan-1-ol, butanoic acid and heptanoic acid. Lastly, octan-1-ol, 2-phenylethanol, pentanoic acid, and heptanoic acid increased with increasing daily milk yield, whereas dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one decreased. In conclusion, the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses from the milk of individual cows was affected by dairy farming system and stage of lactation, and to smaller extent by parity and daily milk yield

Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses / Bergamaschi, Matteo; Aprea, Eugenio; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Cipolat Gotet, C.; Cecchinato, A.; Bittante, G.; Gasperi, Flavia. - In: JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. - ISSN 0022-0302. - 98:4(2015), pp. 2183-2196. [10.3168/jds.2014-8807]

Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses

Aprea, Eugenio;Gasperi, Flavia
2015-01-01

Abstract

The objective of this work was to study the effect of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and characteristics of individual cows (parity, days in milk and daily milk yield) on the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses produced under controlled conditions from the milk of individual cows of the Brown Swiss breed. One hundred and fifty model cheeses were selected from a total of 1,272 produced for a wider study of the phenotypic and genetic variability of Brown Swiss cows. In our study, we selected 30 herds representing 5 different dairy systems. The cows sampled presented different milk yields (12.3-43.2 kg×d-1), stages of lactation (10-412 days in milk) and parity (1-7). A total of 55 volatile compounds were detected by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including 14 alcohols, 13 esters, 11 free fatty acids, 8 ketones, 4 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 1 terpene and 1 pyrazine. The most important sources of variation in the volatile organic profiles of model cheeses were dairy system (18 compounds) and days in milk (10 compounds), followed by parity (3 compounds) and milk yield (5 compounds). The model cheeses produced from the milk of tied cows reared on traditional farms had lower quantities of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, and dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one than those reared in free stalls on modern farms. Of these, milk from farms using total mixed ration had higher a content of alcohols (hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol) and esters (ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate) and a lower content of acetic acid than those using separate feeds. Moreover, the dairy systems that added silage to the total mixed ration produced cheeses with lower levels of volatile organic compounds, in particular alcohols (butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol), than those that did not. The amounts of butan-2-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl-2-methylpropanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and 6-propyloxan-2-one increased linearly during lactation, while octan-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 2-butoxyethanol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine showed a more complex pattern during lactation. The effect of the number of lactations (parity) was significant for octan-1-ol, butanoic acid and heptanoic acid. Lastly, octan-1-ol, 2-phenylethanol, pentanoic acid, and heptanoic acid increased with increasing daily milk yield, whereas dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one decreased. In conclusion, the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses from the milk of individual cows was affected by dairy farming system and stage of lactation, and to smaller extent by parity and daily milk yield
2015
4
Bergamaschi, Matteo; Aprea, Eugenio; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Cipolat Gotet, C.; Cecchinato, A.; Bittante, G.; Gasperi, Flavia
Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses / Bergamaschi, Matteo; Aprea, Eugenio; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Cipolat Gotet, C.; Cecchinato, A.; Bittante, G.; Gasperi, Flavia. - In: JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. - ISSN 0022-0302. - 98:4(2015), pp. 2183-2196. [10.3168/jds.2014-8807]
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