In Europe the mechanical/biological treatment (MBT) is an increasing option as a pre-treatment either before landfilling or before combustion. In this paper, taking into account the new EU directives and in particular the Italian situation, differences between fuel derived from MSW (RDF) and Solid Recovery Fuel (SRF) are presented. In agreement with the new EU directives, RDF/SRF can be produced from approaches based both on the one-stream plant concept and on the conventional two-streams process. The first option refers to bio-drying. The effect of different strategies of selective collection of MSW are analyzed in term of characteristics of the residual MSW and its suitability to be converted into RDF/SRF. The role of respirometry is discussed too.
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