Technologies proposed in the last decades for the reduction of the sludge production in wastewater treatment plants and based on the mechanism of cell lysis-cryptic growth (physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, oxidative treatments) have been widely investigated at lab-, pilot- and, in some cases, at full-scale but the effects on cellular lysis have not always been demonstrated in depth. The research presented in this paper aims to investigate how these sludge reduction technologies affect the integrity and permeabilisation of bacterial cells in sludge using flow cytometry (FCM), which permits the rapid and statistically accurate quantification of intact, permeabilised or disrupted bacteria in the sludge using a double fluorescent DNA-staining instead of using conventional methods like plate counts and microscope. Physical/mechanical treatments (ultrasonication and high pressure homogenisation) caused moderate effects on cell integrity and caused significant cell disruption only at high specific energy levels. Conversely, thermal treatment caused significant damage of bacterial membranes even at moderate temperatures (45-55 °C). Ozonation significantly affected cell integrity, even at low ozone dosages, below 10 mgO3/gTSS, causing an increase of permeabilised and disrupted cells. At higher ozone dosages the compounds solubilised after cell lysis act as scavengers in the competition between soluble compounds and (particulate) bacterial cells. An original aspect of this paper, not yet reported in the literature, is the comparison of the effects of these sludge reduction technologies on bacterial cell integrity and permeabilisation by converting pressure, temperature and ozone dosage to an equivalent value of specific energy. Among these technologies, comparison of the applied specific energy demonstrates that achieving the complete disruption of bacterial cells is not always economically advantageous because excessive energy levels may be required.
|Titolo:||Bacteria permeabilisation and disruption caused by sludge reduction technologies evaluated by flow cytometry|
|Autori:||Foladori, Paola; Tamburini, Sabrina; L., Bruni|
|Titolo del periodico:||WATER RESEARCH|
|Anno di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Numero e parte del fascicolo:||17|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista (Journal article)|