Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro skin models are frequently employed in cosmetic and pharmaceutical research to minimize the demand for animal testing. Hence, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting was introduced to fabricate layer-by-layer bioink made up of cells and improve the ability to develop a rapid manufacturing process, while maintaining bio-mechanical scaffolds and microstructural properties. Briefly, gelatin-polyvinyl alcohol (GPVA) was mixed with 1.5 x 10(6) and 3.0 x 10(6) human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell density, together with 0.1% genipin (GNP), as a crosslinking agent, using 3D-bioprinting. Then, it was cultured under submerged and air-lifting conditions. The gross appearance of the hydrogel's surface and cross-section were captured and evaluated. The biocompatibility testing of HDFs and cell-bioink interaction towards the GPVA was analyzed by using live/dead assay, cell migration activity, cell proliferation assay, cell morphology (SEM) and protein expression via immunocytochemistry. The crosslinked hydrogels significantly demonstrated optimum average pore size (100-199 mu m). The GPVA crosslinked with GNP (GPVA GNP) hydrogels with 3.0 x 10(6) HDFs was proven to be outstanding, compared to the other hydrogels, in biocompatibility testing to promote cellular interaction. Moreover, GPVA-GNP hydrogels, encapsulated with 3.0 x 10(6) HDFs under submerged cultivation, had a better outcome than air-lifting with an excellent surface cell viability rate of 96 +/- 0.02%, demonstrated by 91.3 +/- 4.1% positively expressed Ki67 marker at day 14 that represented active proliferative cells, an average of 503.3 +/- 15.2 mu m for migration distance, and maintained the HDFs' phenotypic profiles with the presence of collagen type I expression. It also presented with an absence of alpha-smooth muscle actin positive staining. In conclusion, 3.0 x 10(6) of hybrid GPVA hydrogel crosslinked with GNP, produced by submerged cultivation, was proven to have the excellent biocompatibility properties required to be a potential bioinks for the rapid manufacturing of 3D in vitro of a single dermal layer for future use in cosmetic, pharmaceutic and toxicologic applications.

Engineered-Skin of Single Dermal Layer Containing Printed Hybrid Gelatin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Bioink via 3D-Bioprinting: In Vitro Assessment under Submerged vs. Air-Lifting Models / Masri, S.; Fauzi, F. A. M.; Hasnizam, S. B.; Azhari, A. S.; Lim, J. E. A.; Hao, L. Q.; Maarof, M.; Motta, A.; Fauzi, M. B.. - In: PHARMACEUTICALS. - ISSN 1424-8247. - ELETTRONICO. - 15:11(2022), pp. 132801-132817. [10.3390/ph15111328]

Engineered-Skin of Single Dermal Layer Containing Printed Hybrid Gelatin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Bioink via 3D-Bioprinting: In Vitro Assessment under Submerged vs. Air-Lifting Models

Motta A.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro skin models are frequently employed in cosmetic and pharmaceutical research to minimize the demand for animal testing. Hence, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting was introduced to fabricate layer-by-layer bioink made up of cells and improve the ability to develop a rapid manufacturing process, while maintaining bio-mechanical scaffolds and microstructural properties. Briefly, gelatin-polyvinyl alcohol (GPVA) was mixed with 1.5 x 10(6) and 3.0 x 10(6) human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell density, together with 0.1% genipin (GNP), as a crosslinking agent, using 3D-bioprinting. Then, it was cultured under submerged and air-lifting conditions. The gross appearance of the hydrogel's surface and cross-section were captured and evaluated. The biocompatibility testing of HDFs and cell-bioink interaction towards the GPVA was analyzed by using live/dead assay, cell migration activity, cell proliferation assay, cell morphology (SEM) and protein expression via immunocytochemistry. The crosslinked hydrogels significantly demonstrated optimum average pore size (100-199 mu m). The GPVA crosslinked with GNP (GPVA GNP) hydrogels with 3.0 x 10(6) HDFs was proven to be outstanding, compared to the other hydrogels, in biocompatibility testing to promote cellular interaction. Moreover, GPVA-GNP hydrogels, encapsulated with 3.0 x 10(6) HDFs under submerged cultivation, had a better outcome than air-lifting with an excellent surface cell viability rate of 96 +/- 0.02%, demonstrated by 91.3 +/- 4.1% positively expressed Ki67 marker at day 14 that represented active proliferative cells, an average of 503.3 +/- 15.2 mu m for migration distance, and maintained the HDFs' phenotypic profiles with the presence of collagen type I expression. It also presented with an absence of alpha-smooth muscle actin positive staining. In conclusion, 3.0 x 10(6) of hybrid GPVA hydrogel crosslinked with GNP, produced by submerged cultivation, was proven to have the excellent biocompatibility properties required to be a potential bioinks for the rapid manufacturing of 3D in vitro of a single dermal layer for future use in cosmetic, pharmaceutic and toxicologic applications.
2022
11
Masri, S.; Fauzi, F. A. M.; Hasnizam, S. B.; Azhari, A. S.; Lim, J. E. A.; Hao, L. Q.; Maarof, M.; Motta, A.; Fauzi, M. B.
Engineered-Skin of Single Dermal Layer Containing Printed Hybrid Gelatin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Bioink via 3D-Bioprinting: In Vitro Assessment under Submerged vs. Air-Lifting Models / Masri, S.; Fauzi, F. A. M.; Hasnizam, S. B.; Azhari, A. S.; Lim, J. E. A.; Hao, L. Q.; Maarof, M.; Motta, A.; Fauzi, M. B.. - In: PHARMACEUTICALS. - ISSN 1424-8247. - ELETTRONICO. - 15:11(2022), pp. 132801-132817. [10.3390/ph15111328]
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