In spoken languages, face masks represent an obstacle to speech understanding and influence metacognitive judgments, reducing confidence and increasing effort while listening. To date, all studies on face masks and communication involved spoken languages and hearing participants, leaving us with no insight on how masked communication impacts on non-spoken languages. Here, we examined the effects of face masks on sign language comprehension and metacognition. In an online experiment, deaf participants (N = 60) watched three parts of a story signed without mask, with a transparent mask or with an opaque mask, and answered questions about story content, as well as their perceived effort, feeling of understanding, and confidence in their answers. Results showed that feeling of understanding and perceived effort worsened as the visual condition changed from no mask to transparent or opaque masks, while comprehension of the story was not significantly different across visual conditions. We propose that metacognitive effects could be due to the reduction of pragmatic, linguistic and para-linguistic cues from the lower face, hidden by the mask. This reduction could impact on lower-face linguistic components perception, attitude attribution, classification of emotions and prosody of a conversation, driving the observed effects on metacognitive judgments but leaving sign language comprehension substantially unchanged, even if with a higher effort. These results represent a novel step towards better understanding what drives metacognitive effects of face masks while communicating face to face and highlight the importance of including the metacognitive dimension in human communication research.

The effect of face masks on sign language comprehension: performance and metacognitive dimensions / Giovanelli, Elena; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Gessa, Elena; Valzolgher, Chiara; Lamano, Luca; Lucioli, Tommaso; Tomasuolo, Elena; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Pavani, Francesco. - In: CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION. - ISSN 1053-8100. - STAMPA. - 109:(2023), p. 103490. [10.1016/j.concog.2023.103490]

The effect of face masks on sign language comprehension: performance and metacognitive dimensions

Giovanelli, Elena
Primo
;
Gessa, Elena;Valzolgher, Chiara;Pavani, Francesco
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

In spoken languages, face masks represent an obstacle to speech understanding and influence metacognitive judgments, reducing confidence and increasing effort while listening. To date, all studies on face masks and communication involved spoken languages and hearing participants, leaving us with no insight on how masked communication impacts on non-spoken languages. Here, we examined the effects of face masks on sign language comprehension and metacognition. In an online experiment, deaf participants (N = 60) watched three parts of a story signed without mask, with a transparent mask or with an opaque mask, and answered questions about story content, as well as their perceived effort, feeling of understanding, and confidence in their answers. Results showed that feeling of understanding and perceived effort worsened as the visual condition changed from no mask to transparent or opaque masks, while comprehension of the story was not significantly different across visual conditions. We propose that metacognitive effects could be due to the reduction of pragmatic, linguistic and para-linguistic cues from the lower face, hidden by the mask. This reduction could impact on lower-face linguistic components perception, attitude attribution, classification of emotions and prosody of a conversation, driving the observed effects on metacognitive judgments but leaving sign language comprehension substantially unchanged, even if with a higher effort. These results represent a novel step towards better understanding what drives metacognitive effects of face masks while communicating face to face and highlight the importance of including the metacognitive dimension in human communication research.
2023
Giovanelli, Elena; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Gessa, Elena; Valzolgher, Chiara; Lamano, Luca; Lucioli, Tommaso; Tomasuolo, Elena; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Pavani, Francesco
The effect of face masks on sign language comprehension: performance and metacognitive dimensions / Giovanelli, Elena; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Gessa, Elena; Valzolgher, Chiara; Lamano, Luca; Lucioli, Tommaso; Tomasuolo, Elena; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Pavani, Francesco. - In: CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION. - ISSN 1053-8100. - STAMPA. - 109:(2023), p. 103490. [10.1016/j.concog.2023.103490]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/372108
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