Several environmental chemicals are suspected risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including valproic acid (VPA) and pesticides acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), if administered during pregnancy. However, their target processes in fetal neuro-development are unknown. We report that the injection of VPA into the fetus impaired imprinting to an artificial object in neonatal chicks, while a predisposed preference for biological motion (BM) remained intact. Blockade of nAChRs acted oppositely, sparing imprinting and impairing BM preference. Beside ketamine and tubocurarine, significant effects of imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid insecticide) appeared at a dose less than 1 ppm. In accord with the behavioral dissociations, VPA enhanced histone acetylation in the primary cell culture of fetal telencephalon, whereas ketamine did not. VPA reduced the brain weight and the ratio of NeuN-positive cells (matured neurons) in the telencephalon of hatchlings, whereas ketamine/tubocurarine did not. Despite the distinct underlying mechanisms, both VPA and nAChR blockade similarly impaired imprinting to biological image composed of point-light animations. Furthermore, both impairments were abolished by postnatal bumetanide treatment, suggesting a common pathology underlying the social attachment malformation. Neurotransmission via nAChR is thus critical for the early social bond formation, which is hindered by ambient neonicotinoids through impaired visual predispositions for animate objects.

Fetal blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine transmission causes autism-like impairment of biological motion preference in the neonatal chick / Matsushima, Toshiya; Miura, Momoko; Patzke, Nina; Toji, Noriyuki; Wada, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Yukiko; Homma, Koichi J; Sgadò, Paola; Vallortigara, Giorgio. - In: CEREBRAL CORTEX COMMUNICATIONS. - ISSN 2632-7376. - 2022:(2022), pp. 1-12. [10.1093/texcom/tgac041]

Fetal blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine transmission causes autism-like impairment of biological motion preference in the neonatal chick

Matsushima, Toshiya
Primo
;
Sgadò, Paola
Penultimo
;
Vallortigara, Giorgio
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Several environmental chemicals are suspected risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including valproic acid (VPA) and pesticides acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), if administered during pregnancy. However, their target processes in fetal neuro-development are unknown. We report that the injection of VPA into the fetus impaired imprinting to an artificial object in neonatal chicks, while a predisposed preference for biological motion (BM) remained intact. Blockade of nAChRs acted oppositely, sparing imprinting and impairing BM preference. Beside ketamine and tubocurarine, significant effects of imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid insecticide) appeared at a dose less than 1 ppm. In accord with the behavioral dissociations, VPA enhanced histone acetylation in the primary cell culture of fetal telencephalon, whereas ketamine did not. VPA reduced the brain weight and the ratio of NeuN-positive cells (matured neurons) in the telencephalon of hatchlings, whereas ketamine/tubocurarine did not. Despite the distinct underlying mechanisms, both VPA and nAChR blockade similarly impaired imprinting to biological image composed of point-light animations. Furthermore, both impairments were abolished by postnatal bumetanide treatment, suggesting a common pathology underlying the social attachment malformation. Neurotransmission via nAChR is thus critical for the early social bond formation, which is hindered by ambient neonicotinoids through impaired visual predispositions for animate objects.
2022
Matsushima, Toshiya; Miura, Momoko; Patzke, Nina; Toji, Noriyuki; Wada, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Yukiko; Homma, Koichi J; Sgadò, Paola; Vallortigara, Giorgio
Fetal blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine transmission causes autism-like impairment of biological motion preference in the neonatal chick / Matsushima, Toshiya; Miura, Momoko; Patzke, Nina; Toji, Noriyuki; Wada, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Yukiko; Homma, Koichi J; Sgadò, Paola; Vallortigara, Giorgio. - In: CEREBRAL CORTEX COMMUNICATIONS. - ISSN 2632-7376. - 2022:(2022), pp. 1-12. [10.1093/texcom/tgac041]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/364653
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