Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presented major challenges for critical care facilities worldwide. Infections which develop alongside or subsequent to viral pneumonitis are a challenge under sporadic and pandemic conditions; however, data have suggested that patterns of these differ between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitides. This secondary analysis aimed to explore patterns of co-infection and intensive care unit-acquired infections (ICU-AI) and the relationship to use of corticosteroids in a large, international cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: This is a multicenter, international, observational study, including adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis admitted to ICUs at the peak of wave one of COVID-19 (February 15th to May 15th, 2020). Data collected included investigator-assessed co-infection at ICU admission, infection acquired in ICU, infection with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic use. Frequencies were compared by Pearson's Chi-squared and continuous variables by Mann-Whitney U test. Propensity score matching for variables associated with ICU-acquired infection was undertaken using R library MatchIT using the "full" matching method. Results: Data were available from 4994 patients. Bacterial co-infection at admission was detected in 716 patients (14%), whilst 85% of patients received antibiotics at that stage. ICU-AI developed in 2715 (54%). The most common ICU-AI was bacterial pneumonia (44% of infections), whilst 9% of patients developed fungal pneumonia; 25% of infections involved MDRO. Patients developing infections in ICU had greater antimicrobial exposure than those without such infections. Incident density (ICU-AI per 1000 ICU days) was in considerable excess of reports from pre-pandemic surveillance. Corticosteroid use was heterogenous between ICUs. In univariate analysis, 58% of patients receiving corticosteroids and 43% of those not receiving steroids developed ICU-AI. Adjusting for potential confounders in the propensity-matched cohort, 71% of patients receiving corticosteroids developed ICU-AI vs 52% of those not receiving corticosteroids. Duration of corticosteroid therapy was also associated with development of ICU-AI and infection with an MDRO. Conclusions: In patients with severe COVID-19 in the first wave, co-infection at admission to ICU was relatively rare but antibiotic use was in substantial excess to that indication. ICU-AI were common and were significantly associated with use of corticosteroids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021).

Co-infection and ICU-acquired infection in COIVD-19 ICU patients: a secondary analysis of the UNITE-COVID data set / Andrew, Conway Morris; Katharina, Kohler; Thomas, De Corte; Ari, Ercole; Harm-Jan, De Grooth; Paul W G, Elbers; Pedro, Povoa; Rui, Morais; Despoina, Koulenti; Sameer, Jog; Nathan, Nielsen; Alasdair, Jubb; Maurizio, Cecconi; Jan, De Waele; Bezzi, Marco; Gira, Alicia; Eller, Philipp; Hamid, Tarikul; Ull Haque, Injamam; De Buyser, Wim; Cudia, Antonella; De Backer, Daniel; Foulon, Pierre; Collin, Vincent; De Waele, Jan; Van Hecke, Jolien; De Waele, Elisabeth; Van Malderen, Claire; Mesland, Jean-Baptiste; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael; Haentjens, Lionel; De Schryver, Nicolas; Van Leemput, Jan; Vanhove, Philippe; Bulpa, Pierre; Ilieva, Viktoria; Katz, David; Binnie, Alexandra; Geagea, Anna; Tirapegui, Fernando; Lago, Gustavo; Graf, Jerónimo; Perez-Araos, Rodrigo; Vargas, Patricio; Martinez, Felipe; Labarca, Eduardo; Molano Franco, Daniel; Parra-Tanoux, Daniela; Felipe Reyes, Luis; Yepes, David; Periš, Filip; Stojanović Stipić, Sanda; Vanessa Campozano Burgos, Cynthia; Roberto Navas Boada, Paulo; Luis Barberan Brun, Jose; Pablo Paredes Ballesteros, Juan; Abdelnasser, Gamal; Hammouda, Ahmed; Elmandouh, Omar; Azzam, Ahmed; Mohamed Hussein, Aliae; Galal, Islam; K Awad, Ahmed; A Azab, Mohammed; Abdalla, Maged; Assal, Hebatallah; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Ghozy, Sherief; Tharwat, Samar; Eldaly, Abdullah; Ellervee, Anneli; Reinhard, Veronika; Chrisment, Anne; Poyat, Chrystelle; Badie, Julio; Berdaguer Ferrari, Fernando; Weiss, Björn; Schellenberg, Clara; J Grunow, Julius; Lorenz, Marco; J Schaller, Stefan; Spieth, Peter; Bota, Marc; Fichtner, Falk; Fuest, Kristina; Lahmer, Tobias; Herrmann, Johannes; Meybohm, Patrick; Markou, Nikolaos; Vasileiadou, Georgia; Chrysanthopoulou, Evangelia; Papamichalis, Panagiotis; Soultati, Ioanna; Jog, Sameer; Kalvit, Kushal; Nainan Myatra, Sheila; Krupa, Ivan; Tharwat, Aisa; Nichol, Alistair; Mccarthy, Aine; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Tonetti, Tommaso; Isoni, Paolo; Spadaro, Savino; Alberto Volta, Carlo; Mirabella, Lucia; Noto, Alberto; Florio, Gaetano; Guzzardella, Amedeo; Paleari, Chiara; Baccanelli, Federica; Savi, Marzia; Antonelli, Massimo; De Pascale, Gennaro; Luca, San; Vaccarini, Barbara; Montrucchio, Giorgia; Sales, Gabriele; Donadello, Katia; Gottin, Leonardo; Nizzero, Marta; Polati, Enrico; De Rosa, Silvia; Sulemanji, Demet; Abusalama, Abdurraouf; Elhadi, Muhammed; De FelipeJesus, Montelongo; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Daniel; Hugo Madrigal Robles, Victor; Canedo, Nancy; Esquivel Chavez, Alejandro; Dendane, Tarek; Grady, Bart; de Jong, Ben; van der Heiden, Eveline; Thoral, Patrick; van den Bogaard, Bas; E Spronk, Peter; Achterberg, Sefanja; Groeneveld, Melanie; L So, Ralph K; de Wijs, Calvin; Scholten, Harm; Beishuizen, Albertus; D Cornet, Alexander; C Reidinga, Auke; Kranen, Hetty; Mensink, Roos; Gasthuis, Spaarne; den Boer, Sylvia; de Groot, Marcel; Beck, Oliver; Bethlehem, Carina; van Bussel, Bas; Frenzel, Tim; de Jong, Celestine; Wilting, Rob; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Mehagnoul-Schipper, Jannet; Alasia, Datonye; Kumar, Ashok; Qayyum, Ahad; Rana, Muhammad; Abu Jayyab, Mustafa; Quispe Sierra, Rosario; Mark Hernandez, Aaron; de Almeida, José; Taborda, Lúcia; Anselmo, Mónica; Ramires, Tiago; Silva, Catarina; Roriz, Carolina; Morais, Rui; Póvoa, Pedro; Patricio, Patricia; Pinto, André; Lurdes Santos, Maria; Costa, Vasco; Cunha, Pedro; Gonçalves, Celina; Nunes, Sandra; Camões, João; Adrião, Diana; Oliveira, Ana; Omrani, Ali; Al Maslamani, Muna; Suei Elbuzidi, Abdurrahmaan; Mahmoud Al Qudah, Bara; Rauof Akkari, Abdel; Alkhatteb, Mohamed; Baiou, Anas; Husain, Ahmed; Alwraidat, Mohamed; Abdulsalam Saif, Ibrahim; Bakdach, Dana; Ahmed, Amna; Aleef, Mohamed; Bintaher, Awadh; Petrisor, Cristina; Popov, Evgeniy; Popova, Ksenia; Dementienko, Mariia; Teplykh, Boris; Pyregov, Alexey; Davydova, Liubov; Vladislav, Belskii; Neporada, Elena; Zverev, Ivan; Meshchaninova, Svetlana; Sokolov, Dmitry; Gavrilova, Elena; Shlyk, Irina; Poliakov, Igor; Vlasova, Marina; Aljuhani, Ohoud; Alkhalaf, Amina; Bin Humaid, Felwa; Arabi, Yaseen; Kuhail, Ahmed; Elrabi, Omar; E Ghannam, Madihah; Teng Fong, Ng; Kansal, Amit; Kian Ho, Vui; Ng, Jensen; Rodrígez García, Raquel; Taboada Fraga, Xiana; Del Pilar García-Bonillo, Mª; Padilla-Serrano, Antonio; Martin Cuadrado, Marta; Ferrando, Carlos; Catalan-Monzon, Ignacio; Galarza, Laura; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Jimenez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Solis, Carmen; Franquesa-Gonzalez, Enric; Pérez Acosta, Guillermo; Santana Cabrera, Luciano; Pablo Aviles Parra, Juan; Muñoyerro Gonzalez, Francisco; Del Carmen Lorente Conesa, Maria; Yago Martinez Varela, Ignacio; Victoriano Baez Pravia, Orville; Cruz Martin Delgado, Maria; Munoz de Cabo, Carlos; Ioan, Ana-Maria; Perez-Calvo, Cesar; Santos, Arnoldo; Abad-Motos, Ane; Ripolles-Melchor, Javier; Civantos Martin, Belén; Yus Teruel, Santiago; Higuera Lucas, Juan; Blandino Ortiz, Aaron; de Pablo Sánchez, Raúl; Emilio Barrueco-Francioni, Jesús; Forcelledo Espina, Lorena; M Bonell-Goytisolo, José; Salaverria, Iñigo; Socias Mir, Antonia; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Emilio; Hidalgo Valverde, Virginia; Jimeno Cubero, Patricia; Arbol Linde, Francisca; Cruza Leganes, Nieves; Maria Romeu, Juan; Concha, Pablo; Angel Berezo-Garcia, José; Fraile, Virginia; Cuenca-Rubio, Cristina; Pérez-Torres, David; Serrano, Ainhoa; Martínez Valero, Clara; Ortiz Suner, Andrea; Larrañaga, Leire; Legaristi, Noemi; Ferrigno, Gerardo; Khlafalla, Safa; Bihariesingh-Sanchit, Rosita; Sjukhus, Hallands; Zoerner, Frank; Grip, Jonathan; Kilsand, Kristina; Mårtensson, Johan; Österlind, Jonas; Sjukhuset, Akademiska; von Seth, Magnus; Sjukhus, Västerviks; Berkius, Johan; Ceruti, Samuele; Glotta, Andrea; Izdes, Seval; Özkoçak Turan, Işıl; Cosar, Ahmet; Halacli, Burcin; Dereli, Necla; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbas, Türkay; Elay, Gülseren; Eyüpoğlu, Selin; Bílír, Yelíz; Tolga Saraçoğlu, Kemal; Kaya, Ebru; Sultan Sahin, Ayca; Korkmaz Ekren, Pervin; Mengi, Tuğçe; Ozmen Suner, Kezban; Tomak, Yakup; Eroglu, Ahmet; Alsabbah, Asad; Hanlon, Katie; Gervin, Kevin; Mcmahon, Sean; Hagan, Samantha; V Higenbottam, Caroline; Mullhi, Randeep; Poulton, Lottie; Torlinski, Tomasz; Gareth, Allen; Truman, Nick; Vijayakumar, Gopal; Hall, Chris; Jubb, Alasdair; Cagova, Lenka; Jones, Nicola; Graham, Sam; Robin, Nicole; Cowton, Amanda; Donnelly, Adrian; Singatullina, Natalia; Kent, Melanie; Boulanger, Carole; Campbell, Zoë; Potter, Elizabeth; Duric, Natalie; Szakmany, Tamas; Brompton, Royal; Kviatkovske, Orinta; Marczin, Nandor; Ellis, Caroline; Saha, Rajnish; Sri-Chandana, Chunda; Allan, John; Mumelj, Lana; Venkatesh, Harish; Nina Gotz, Vera; Cochrane, Anthony; Ficial, Barbara; Kamble, Shruthi; Lumlertgul, Nuttha; Oddy, Christopher; Jain, Susan; Beatrice Crapelli, Giulia; Vlachou, Aikaterini; Golden, David; Garrioch, Sweyn; Henning, Jeremy; Loveleena, Gupta; Davey, Miriam; Grauslyte, Lina; Salciute-Simene, Erika; Cook, Martin; Barling, Danny; Broadhurst, Phil; Purvis, Sarah; Spivey, Michael; Shuker, Benjamin; Grecu, Irina; Harding, Daniel; Singatullina, Natalia; T Dean, James; D Nielsen, Nathan; Al-Bayati, Sama; Al-Sadawi, Mohammed; Charron, Mariane; Stubenrauch, Peter; Santanilla, Jairo; Wentowski, Catherine; Rosenberger, Dorothea; Eksarko, Polikseni; Jawa, Randeep. - In: CRITICAL CARE. - ISSN 1466-609X. - 26:1(2022), pp. 23601-23613. [10.1186/s13054-022-04108-8]

Co-infection and ICU-acquired infection in COIVD-19 ICU patients: a secondary analysis of the UNITE-COVID data set

Katia Donadello;Silvia De Rosa;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presented major challenges for critical care facilities worldwide. Infections which develop alongside or subsequent to viral pneumonitis are a challenge under sporadic and pandemic conditions; however, data have suggested that patterns of these differ between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitides. This secondary analysis aimed to explore patterns of co-infection and intensive care unit-acquired infections (ICU-AI) and the relationship to use of corticosteroids in a large, international cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: This is a multicenter, international, observational study, including adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis admitted to ICUs at the peak of wave one of COVID-19 (February 15th to May 15th, 2020). Data collected included investigator-assessed co-infection at ICU admission, infection acquired in ICU, infection with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic use. Frequencies were compared by Pearson's Chi-squared and continuous variables by Mann-Whitney U test. Propensity score matching for variables associated with ICU-acquired infection was undertaken using R library MatchIT using the "full" matching method. Results: Data were available from 4994 patients. Bacterial co-infection at admission was detected in 716 patients (14%), whilst 85% of patients received antibiotics at that stage. ICU-AI developed in 2715 (54%). The most common ICU-AI was bacterial pneumonia (44% of infections), whilst 9% of patients developed fungal pneumonia; 25% of infections involved MDRO. Patients developing infections in ICU had greater antimicrobial exposure than those without such infections. Incident density (ICU-AI per 1000 ICU days) was in considerable excess of reports from pre-pandemic surveillance. Corticosteroid use was heterogenous between ICUs. In univariate analysis, 58% of patients receiving corticosteroids and 43% of those not receiving steroids developed ICU-AI. Adjusting for potential confounders in the propensity-matched cohort, 71% of patients receiving corticosteroids developed ICU-AI vs 52% of those not receiving corticosteroids. Duration of corticosteroid therapy was also associated with development of ICU-AI and infection with an MDRO. Conclusions: In patients with severe COVID-19 in the first wave, co-infection at admission to ICU was relatively rare but antibiotic use was in substantial excess to that indication. ICU-AI were common and were significantly associated with use of corticosteroids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021).
2022
1
Andrew, Conway Morris; Katharina, Kohler; Thomas, De Corte; Ari, Ercole; Harm-Jan, De Grooth; Paul W G, Elbers; Pedro, Povoa; Rui, Morais; Despoina, Koulenti; Sameer, Jog; Nathan, Nielsen; Alasdair, Jubb; Maurizio, Cecconi; Jan, De Waele; Bezzi, Marco; Gira, Alicia; Eller, Philipp; Hamid, Tarikul; Ull Haque, Injamam; De Buyser, Wim; Cudia, Antonella; De Backer, Daniel; Foulon, Pierre; Collin, Vincent; De Waele, Jan; Van Hecke, Jolien; De Waele, Elisabeth; Van Malderen, Claire; Mesland, Jean-Baptiste; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael; Haentjens, Lionel; De Schryver, Nicolas; Van Leemput, Jan; Vanhove, Philippe; Bulpa, Pierre; Ilieva, Viktoria; Katz, David; Binnie, Alexandra; Geagea, Anna; Tirapegui, Fernando; Lago, Gustavo; Graf, Jerónimo; Perez-Araos, Rodrigo; Vargas, Patricio; Martinez, Felipe; Labarca, Eduardo; Molano Franco, Daniel; Parra-Tanoux, Daniela; Felipe Reyes, Luis; Yepes, David; Periš, Filip; Stojanović Stipić, Sanda; Vanessa Campozano Burgos, Cynthia; Roberto Navas Boada, Paulo; Luis Barberan Brun, Jose; Pablo Paredes Ballesteros, Juan; Abdelnasser, Gamal; Hammouda, Ahmed; Elmandouh, Omar; Azzam, Ahmed; Mohamed Hussein, Aliae; Galal, Islam; K Awad, Ahmed; A Azab, Mohammed; Abdalla, Maged; Assal, Hebatallah; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Ghozy, Sherief; Tharwat, Samar; Eldaly, Abdullah; Ellervee, Anneli; Reinhard, Veronika; Chrisment, Anne; Poyat, Chrystelle; Badie, Julio; Berdaguer Ferrari, Fernando; Weiss, Björn; Schellenberg, Clara; J Grunow, Julius; Lorenz, Marco; J Schaller, Stefan; Spieth, Peter; Bota, Marc; Fichtner, Falk; Fuest, Kristina; Lahmer, Tobias; Herrmann, Johannes; Meybohm, Patrick; Markou, Nikolaos; Vasileiadou, Georgia; Chrysanthopoulou, Evangelia; Papamichalis, Panagiotis; Soultati, Ioanna; Jog, Sameer; Kalvit, Kushal; Nainan Myatra, Sheila; Krupa, Ivan; Tharwat, Aisa; Nichol, Alistair; Mccarthy, Aine; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Tonetti, Tommaso; Isoni, Paolo; Spadaro, Savino; Alberto Volta, Carlo; Mirabella, Lucia; Noto, Alberto; Florio, Gaetano; Guzzardella, Amedeo; Paleari, Chiara; Baccanelli, Federica; Savi, Marzia; Antonelli, Massimo; De Pascale, Gennaro; Luca, San; Vaccarini, Barbara; Montrucchio, Giorgia; Sales, Gabriele; Donadello, Katia; Gottin, Leonardo; Nizzero, Marta; Polati, Enrico; De Rosa, Silvia; Sulemanji, Demet; Abusalama, Abdurraouf; Elhadi, Muhammed; De FelipeJesus, Montelongo; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Daniel; Hugo Madrigal Robles, Victor; Canedo, Nancy; Esquivel Chavez, Alejandro; Dendane, Tarek; Grady, Bart; de Jong, Ben; van der Heiden, Eveline; Thoral, Patrick; van den Bogaard, Bas; E Spronk, Peter; Achterberg, Sefanja; Groeneveld, Melanie; L So, Ralph K; de Wijs, Calvin; Scholten, Harm; Beishuizen, Albertus; D Cornet, Alexander; C Reidinga, Auke; Kranen, Hetty; Mensink, Roos; Gasthuis, Spaarne; den Boer, Sylvia; de Groot, Marcel; Beck, Oliver; Bethlehem, Carina; van Bussel, Bas; Frenzel, Tim; de Jong, Celestine; Wilting, Rob; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Mehagnoul-Schipper, Jannet; Alasia, Datonye; Kumar, Ashok; Qayyum, Ahad; Rana, Muhammad; Abu Jayyab, Mustafa; Quispe Sierra, Rosario; Mark Hernandez, Aaron; de Almeida, José; Taborda, Lúcia; Anselmo, Mónica; Ramires, Tiago; Silva, Catarina; Roriz, Carolina; Morais, Rui; Póvoa, Pedro; Patricio, Patricia; Pinto, André; Lurdes Santos, Maria; Costa, Vasco; Cunha, Pedro; Gonçalves, Celina; Nunes, Sandra; Camões, João; Adrião, Diana; Oliveira, Ana; Omrani, Ali; Al Maslamani, Muna; Suei Elbuzidi, Abdurrahmaan; Mahmoud Al Qudah, Bara; Rauof Akkari, Abdel; Alkhatteb, Mohamed; Baiou, Anas; Husain, Ahmed; Alwraidat, Mohamed; Abdulsalam Saif, Ibrahim; Bakdach, Dana; Ahmed, Amna; Aleef, Mohamed; Bintaher, Awadh; Petrisor, Cristina; Popov, Evgeniy; Popova, Ksenia; Dementienko, Mariia; Teplykh, Boris; Pyregov, Alexey; Davydova, Liubov; Vladislav, Belskii; Neporada, Elena; Zverev, Ivan; Meshchaninova, Svetlana; Sokolov, Dmitry; Gavrilova, Elena; Shlyk, Irina; Poliakov, Igor; Vlasova, Marina; Aljuhani, Ohoud; Alkhalaf, Amina; Bin Humaid, Felwa; Arabi, Yaseen; Kuhail, Ahmed; Elrabi, Omar; E Ghannam, Madihah; Teng Fong, Ng; Kansal, Amit; Kian Ho, Vui; Ng, Jensen; Rodrígez García, Raquel; Taboada Fraga, Xiana; Del Pilar García-Bonillo, Mª; Padilla-Serrano, Antonio; Martin Cuadrado, Marta; Ferrando, Carlos; Catalan-Monzon, Ignacio; Galarza, Laura; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Jimenez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Solis, Carmen; Franquesa-Gonzalez, Enric; Pérez Acosta, Guillermo; Santana Cabrera, Luciano; Pablo Aviles Parra, Juan; Muñoyerro Gonzalez, Francisco; Del Carmen Lorente Conesa, Maria; Yago Martinez Varela, Ignacio; Victoriano Baez Pravia, Orville; Cruz Martin Delgado, Maria; Munoz de Cabo, Carlos; Ioan, Ana-Maria; Perez-Calvo, Cesar; Santos, Arnoldo; Abad-Motos, Ane; Ripolles-Melchor, Javier; Civantos Martin, Belén; Yus Teruel, Santiago; Higuera Lucas, Juan; Blandino Ortiz, Aaron; de Pablo Sánchez, Raúl; Emilio Barrueco-Francioni, Jesús; Forcelledo Espina, Lorena; M Bonell-Goytisolo, José; Salaverria, Iñigo; Socias Mir, Antonia; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Emilio; Hidalgo Valverde, Virginia; Jimeno Cubero, Patricia; Arbol Linde, Francisca; Cruza Leganes, Nieves; Maria Romeu, Juan; Concha, Pablo; Angel Berezo-Garcia, José; Fraile, Virginia; Cuenca-Rubio, Cristina; Pérez-Torres, David; Serrano, Ainhoa; Martínez Valero, Clara; Ortiz Suner, Andrea; Larrañaga, Leire; Legaristi, Noemi; Ferrigno, Gerardo; Khlafalla, Safa; Bihariesingh-Sanchit, Rosita; Sjukhus, Hallands; Zoerner, Frank; Grip, Jonathan; Kilsand, Kristina; Mårtensson, Johan; Österlind, Jonas; Sjukhuset, Akademiska; von Seth, Magnus; Sjukhus, Västerviks; Berkius, Johan; Ceruti, Samuele; Glotta, Andrea; Izdes, Seval; Özkoçak Turan, Işıl; Cosar, Ahmet; Halacli, Burcin; Dereli, Necla; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbas, Türkay; Elay, Gülseren; Eyüpoğlu, Selin; Bílír, Yelíz; Tolga Saraçoğlu, Kemal; Kaya, Ebru; Sultan Sahin, Ayca; Korkmaz Ekren, Pervin; Mengi, Tuğçe; Ozmen Suner, Kezban; Tomak, Yakup; Eroglu, Ahmet; Alsabbah, Asad; Hanlon, Katie; Gervin, Kevin; Mcmahon, Sean; Hagan, Samantha; V Higenbottam, Caroline; Mullhi, Randeep; Poulton, Lottie; Torlinski, Tomasz; Gareth, Allen; Truman, Nick; Vijayakumar, Gopal; Hall, Chris; Jubb, Alasdair; Cagova, Lenka; Jones, Nicola; Graham, Sam; Robin, Nicole; Cowton, Amanda; Donnelly, Adrian; Singatullina, Natalia; Kent, Melanie; Boulanger, Carole; Campbell, Zoë; Potter, Elizabeth; Duric, Natalie; Szakmany, Tamas; Brompton, Royal; Kviatkovske, Orinta; Marczin, Nandor; Ellis, Caroline; Saha, Rajnish; Sri-Chandana, Chunda; Allan, John; Mumelj, Lana; Venkatesh, Harish; Nina Gotz, Vera; Cochrane, Anthony; Ficial, Barbara; Kamble, Shruthi; Lumlertgul, Nuttha; Oddy, Christopher; Jain, Susan; Beatrice Crapelli, Giulia; Vlachou, Aikaterini; Golden, David; Garrioch, Sweyn; Henning, Jeremy; Loveleena, Gupta; Davey, Miriam; Grauslyte, Lina; Salciute-Simene, Erika; Cook, Martin; Barling, Danny; Broadhurst, Phil; Purvis, Sarah; Spivey, Michael; Shuker, Benjamin; Grecu, Irina; Harding, Daniel; Singatullina, Natalia; T Dean, James; D Nielsen, Nathan; Al-Bayati, Sama; Al-Sadawi, Mohammed; Charron, Mariane; Stubenrauch, Peter; Santanilla, Jairo; Wentowski, Catherine; Rosenberger, Dorothea; Eksarko, Polikseni; Jawa, Randeep
Co-infection and ICU-acquired infection in COIVD-19 ICU patients: a secondary analysis of the UNITE-COVID data set / Andrew, Conway Morris; Katharina, Kohler; Thomas, De Corte; Ari, Ercole; Harm-Jan, De Grooth; Paul W G, Elbers; Pedro, Povoa; Rui, Morais; Despoina, Koulenti; Sameer, Jog; Nathan, Nielsen; Alasdair, Jubb; Maurizio, Cecconi; Jan, De Waele; Bezzi, Marco; Gira, Alicia; Eller, Philipp; Hamid, Tarikul; Ull Haque, Injamam; De Buyser, Wim; Cudia, Antonella; De Backer, Daniel; Foulon, Pierre; Collin, Vincent; De Waele, Jan; Van Hecke, Jolien; De Waele, Elisabeth; Van Malderen, Claire; Mesland, Jean-Baptiste; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael; Haentjens, Lionel; De Schryver, Nicolas; Van Leemput, Jan; Vanhove, Philippe; Bulpa, Pierre; Ilieva, Viktoria; Katz, David; Binnie, Alexandra; Geagea, Anna; Tirapegui, Fernando; Lago, Gustavo; Graf, Jerónimo; Perez-Araos, Rodrigo; Vargas, Patricio; Martinez, Felipe; Labarca, Eduardo; Molano Franco, Daniel; Parra-Tanoux, Daniela; Felipe Reyes, Luis; Yepes, David; Periš, Filip; Stojanović Stipić, Sanda; Vanessa Campozano Burgos, Cynthia; Roberto Navas Boada, Paulo; Luis Barberan Brun, Jose; Pablo Paredes Ballesteros, Juan; Abdelnasser, Gamal; Hammouda, Ahmed; Elmandouh, Omar; Azzam, Ahmed; Mohamed Hussein, Aliae; Galal, Islam; K Awad, Ahmed; A Azab, Mohammed; Abdalla, Maged; Assal, Hebatallah; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Ghozy, Sherief; Tharwat, Samar; Eldaly, Abdullah; Ellervee, Anneli; Reinhard, Veronika; Chrisment, Anne; Poyat, Chrystelle; Badie, Julio; Berdaguer Ferrari, Fernando; Weiss, Björn; Schellenberg, Clara; J Grunow, Julius; Lorenz, Marco; J Schaller, Stefan; Spieth, Peter; Bota, Marc; Fichtner, Falk; Fuest, Kristina; Lahmer, Tobias; Herrmann, Johannes; Meybohm, Patrick; Markou, Nikolaos; Vasileiadou, Georgia; Chrysanthopoulou, Evangelia; Papamichalis, Panagiotis; Soultati, Ioanna; Jog, Sameer; Kalvit, Kushal; Nainan Myatra, Sheila; Krupa, Ivan; Tharwat, Aisa; Nichol, Alistair; Mccarthy, Aine; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Tonetti, Tommaso; Isoni, Paolo; Spadaro, Savino; Alberto Volta, Carlo; Mirabella, Lucia; Noto, Alberto; Florio, Gaetano; Guzzardella, Amedeo; Paleari, Chiara; Baccanelli, Federica; Savi, Marzia; Antonelli, Massimo; De Pascale, Gennaro; Luca, San; Vaccarini, Barbara; Montrucchio, Giorgia; Sales, Gabriele; Donadello, Katia; Gottin, Leonardo; Nizzero, Marta; Polati, Enrico; De Rosa, Silvia; Sulemanji, Demet; Abusalama, Abdurraouf; Elhadi, Muhammed; De FelipeJesus, Montelongo; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Daniel; Hugo Madrigal Robles, Victor; Canedo, Nancy; Esquivel Chavez, Alejandro; Dendane, Tarek; Grady, Bart; de Jong, Ben; van der Heiden, Eveline; Thoral, Patrick; van den Bogaard, Bas; E Spronk, Peter; Achterberg, Sefanja; Groeneveld, Melanie; L So, Ralph K; de Wijs, Calvin; Scholten, Harm; Beishuizen, Albertus; D Cornet, Alexander; C Reidinga, Auke; Kranen, Hetty; Mensink, Roos; Gasthuis, Spaarne; den Boer, Sylvia; de Groot, Marcel; Beck, Oliver; Bethlehem, Carina; van Bussel, Bas; Frenzel, Tim; de Jong, Celestine; 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[10.1186/s13054-022-04108-8]
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