Pore-forming toxins are an important component of the venom of many animals. Actinoporins are potent cytolysins that were first detected in the venom of sea anemones; however, they are occasionally found in animals other than cnidarians and are expanded in a few predatory gastropods. Here, we report the presence of 27 unique actinoporin-like genes with monophyletic origin in Mytilus galloprovincialis, which we have termed mytiporins. These mytiporins exhibited a remarkable level of molecular diversity and gene presence-absence variation, which warranted further studies aimed at elucidating their functional role. We structurally and functionally characterized mytiporin-1 and found significant differences from the archetypal actinoporin fragaceatoxin C. Mytiporin-1 showed weaker permeabilization activity, no specificity towards sphingomyelin, and weak activity in model lipid systems with negatively charged lipids. In contrast to fragaceatoxin C, which forms octameric pores, functional mytiporin-1 pores on negatively charged lipid membranes were hexameric. Similar hexameric pores were observed for coluporin-26 from Cumia reticulata and a conoporin from Conus andremenezi. This indicates that also other molluscan actinoporin-like proteins differ from fragaceatoxin C. Although the functional role of mytiporins in the context of molluscan physiology remains to be elucidated, the lineage-specific gene family expansion event that characterizes mytiporins indicates that strong selective forces acted on their molecular diversification. Given the tissue distribution of mytiporins, this process may have broadened the taxonomic breadth of their biological targets, which would have important implications for digestive processes or mucosal immunity.

Expansion and Neofunctionalization of Actinoporin-like Genes in Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) / Koritnik, Neža; Gerdol, Marco; Šolinc, Gašper; Švigelj, Tomaž; Caserman, Simon; Merzel, Franci; Holden, Ellie; Benesch, Justin L P; Trenti, Francesco; Guella, Graziano; Pallavicini, Alberto; Modica, Maria Vittoria; Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor. - In: GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. - ISSN 1759-6653. - STAMPA. - 14:11(2022). [10.1093/gbe/evac151]

Expansion and Neofunctionalization of Actinoporin-like Genes in Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

Trenti, Francesco;Guella, Graziano;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Pore-forming toxins are an important component of the venom of many animals. Actinoporins are potent cytolysins that were first detected in the venom of sea anemones; however, they are occasionally found in animals other than cnidarians and are expanded in a few predatory gastropods. Here, we report the presence of 27 unique actinoporin-like genes with monophyletic origin in Mytilus galloprovincialis, which we have termed mytiporins. These mytiporins exhibited a remarkable level of molecular diversity and gene presence-absence variation, which warranted further studies aimed at elucidating their functional role. We structurally and functionally characterized mytiporin-1 and found significant differences from the archetypal actinoporin fragaceatoxin C. Mytiporin-1 showed weaker permeabilization activity, no specificity towards sphingomyelin, and weak activity in model lipid systems with negatively charged lipids. In contrast to fragaceatoxin C, which forms octameric pores, functional mytiporin-1 pores on negatively charged lipid membranes were hexameric. Similar hexameric pores were observed for coluporin-26 from Cumia reticulata and a conoporin from Conus andremenezi. This indicates that also other molluscan actinoporin-like proteins differ from fragaceatoxin C. Although the functional role of mytiporins in the context of molluscan physiology remains to be elucidated, the lineage-specific gene family expansion event that characterizes mytiporins indicates that strong selective forces acted on their molecular diversification. Given the tissue distribution of mytiporins, this process may have broadened the taxonomic breadth of their biological targets, which would have important implications for digestive processes or mucosal immunity.
2022
11
Koritnik, Neža; Gerdol, Marco; Šolinc, Gašper; Švigelj, Tomaž; Caserman, Simon; Merzel, Franci; Holden, Ellie; Benesch, Justin L P; Trenti, Francesco; Guella, Graziano; Pallavicini, Alberto; Modica, Maria Vittoria; Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor
Expansion and Neofunctionalization of Actinoporin-like Genes in Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) / Koritnik, Neža; Gerdol, Marco; Šolinc, Gašper; Švigelj, Tomaž; Caserman, Simon; Merzel, Franci; Holden, Ellie; Benesch, Justin L P; Trenti, Francesco; Guella, Graziano; Pallavicini, Alberto; Modica, Maria Vittoria; Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor. - In: GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. - ISSN 1759-6653. - STAMPA. - 14:11(2022). [10.1093/gbe/evac151]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/362782
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