Image Captioning (IC) aims to generate a coherent and comprehensive textual description that summarizes the complex content of an image. It is a combination of computer vision and natural language processing techniques to encode the visual features of an image and translate them into a sentence. In the context of remote sensing (RS) analysis, IC has been emerging as a new research area of high interest since it not only recognizes the objects within an image but also describes their attributes and relationships. In this thesis, we propose several IC methods for RS image analysis. We focus on the design of different approaches that take into consideration the peculiarity of RS images (e.g. spectral, temporal and spatial properties) and study the benefits of IC in challenging RS applications. In particular, we focus our attention on developing a new decoder which is based on support vector machines. Compared to the traditional decoders that are based on deep learning, the proposed decoder is particularly interesting for those situations in which only a few training samples are available to alleviate the problem of overfitting. The peculiarity of the proposed decoder is its simplicity and efficiency. It is composed of only one hyperparameter, does not require expensive power units and is very fast in terms of training and testing time making it suitable for real life applications. Despite the efforts made in developing reliable and accurate IC systems, the task is far for being solved. The generated descriptions are affected by several errors related to the attributes and the objects present in an RS scene. Once an error occurs, it is propagated through the recurrent layers of the decoders leading to inaccurate descriptions. To cope with this issue, we propose two post-processing techniques with the aim of improving the generated sentences by detecting and correcting the potential errors. They are based on Hidden Markov Model and Viterbi algorithm. The former aims to generate a set of possible states while the latter aims at finding the optimal sequence of states. The proposed post-processing techniques can be injected to any IC system at test time to improve the quality of the generated sentences. While all the captioning systems developed in the RS community are devoted to single and RGB images, we propose two captioning systems that can be applied to multitemporal and multispectral RS images. The proposed captioning systems are able at describing the changes occurred in a given geographical through time. We refer to this new paradigm of analysing multitemporal and multispectral images as change captioning (CC). To test the proposed CC systems, we construct two novel datasets composed of bitemporal RS images. The first one is composed of very high-resolution RGB images while the second one of medium resolution multispectral satellite images. To advance the task of CC, the constructed datasets are publically available in the following link: https://disi.unitn.it/~melgani/datasets.html. Finally, we analyse the potential of IC for content based image retrieval (CBIR) and show its applicability and advantages compared to the traditional techniques. Specifically, we focus our attention on developing a CBIR systems that represents an image with generated descriptions and uses sentence similarity to search and retrieve relevant RS images. Compare to traditional CBIR systems, the proposed system is able to search and retrieve images using either an image or a sentence as a query making it more comfortable for the end-users. The achieved results show the promising potentialities of our proposed methods compared to the baselines and state-of-the art methods.

IMAGE CAPTIONING FOR REMOTE SENSING IMAGE ANALYSIS / Hoxha, Genc. - (2022 Aug 09), pp. 1-85.

IMAGE CAPTIONING FOR REMOTE SENSING IMAGE ANALYSIS

Hoxha, Genc
2022-08-09

Abstract

Image Captioning (IC) aims to generate a coherent and comprehensive textual description that summarizes the complex content of an image. It is a combination of computer vision and natural language processing techniques to encode the visual features of an image and translate them into a sentence. In the context of remote sensing (RS) analysis, IC has been emerging as a new research area of high interest since it not only recognizes the objects within an image but also describes their attributes and relationships. In this thesis, we propose several IC methods for RS image analysis. We focus on the design of different approaches that take into consideration the peculiarity of RS images (e.g. spectral, temporal and spatial properties) and study the benefits of IC in challenging RS applications. In particular, we focus our attention on developing a new decoder which is based on support vector machines. Compared to the traditional decoders that are based on deep learning, the proposed decoder is particularly interesting for those situations in which only a few training samples are available to alleviate the problem of overfitting. The peculiarity of the proposed decoder is its simplicity and efficiency. It is composed of only one hyperparameter, does not require expensive power units and is very fast in terms of training and testing time making it suitable for real life applications. Despite the efforts made in developing reliable and accurate IC systems, the task is far for being solved. The generated descriptions are affected by several errors related to the attributes and the objects present in an RS scene. Once an error occurs, it is propagated through the recurrent layers of the decoders leading to inaccurate descriptions. To cope with this issue, we propose two post-processing techniques with the aim of improving the generated sentences by detecting and correcting the potential errors. They are based on Hidden Markov Model and Viterbi algorithm. The former aims to generate a set of possible states while the latter aims at finding the optimal sequence of states. The proposed post-processing techniques can be injected to any IC system at test time to improve the quality of the generated sentences. While all the captioning systems developed in the RS community are devoted to single and RGB images, we propose two captioning systems that can be applied to multitemporal and multispectral RS images. The proposed captioning systems are able at describing the changes occurred in a given geographical through time. We refer to this new paradigm of analysing multitemporal and multispectral images as change captioning (CC). To test the proposed CC systems, we construct two novel datasets composed of bitemporal RS images. The first one is composed of very high-resolution RGB images while the second one of medium resolution multispectral satellite images. To advance the task of CC, the constructed datasets are publically available in the following link: https://disi.unitn.it/~melgani/datasets.html. Finally, we analyse the potential of IC for content based image retrieval (CBIR) and show its applicability and advantages compared to the traditional techniques. Specifically, we focus our attention on developing a CBIR systems that represents an image with generated descriptions and uses sentence similarity to search and retrieve relevant RS images. Compare to traditional CBIR systems, the proposed system is able to search and retrieve images using either an image or a sentence as a query making it more comfortable for the end-users. The achieved results show the promising potentialities of our proposed methods compared to the baselines and state-of-the art methods.
XXXIV
2021-2022
Università degli Studi di Trento
Information and Communication Technology
Melgani, Farid
no
Inglese
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11572/351752
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