Automotive brake systems are source of particulate matter (PM) emissions, particularly in the urban areas. Several human ill-health are related with this kind of pollution. Along tire wear, road wear and dust from resuspension, the brake wear comprises the most relevant non-exhaust source of road traffic related emissions. Aiming at studying the PM brake emissions, this thesis is composed of an introductory part containing the main concepts and the state of art of the main subjects; and the experimental part, which comprehends three investigations. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 are dedicated to the introduction part. Chapter 2 provides a brief description of the friction and wear, as well as the fundamental principles of braking by contact. Chapter 3 discuss the disc braking system, with particular attention to the pad friction materials. Chapter 4 is dedicated to friction layer: the layer usually developing at the disc/pad interface, affecting the performances of the tribological system. Finally, Chapter 5 provides an extensive discussion of the issues related to the particulate matter originated from disc brake systems. The experimental part is presented in the Chapters 6, 7, 8 and 9. Chapter 6 describes the methodology applied in all the investigations. Chapter 7 investigates the PM emissions behavior and its interaction with the friction and wear, aiming to identify the mechanism of generation the PM emissions. A copper-containing and a copper-free commercial friction materials were used, with particular emphasis on the effect of the scorching treatment. The Chapter 8 is dedicated at investigating the tribological behavior and the corresponding PM emissions in two Cu-free commercial friction materials, aiming to a better understanding the effect of abrasive ingredients on the emissions generation. Finally, the Chapter 9 investigated the addition of natural ingredient rice husk in a new eco-friendly Cu-free brake friction material composition, focusing the attention on the tribological and emissions behavior. All tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with an enclosure, especially designed for investigating the tribological properties, as well as the airborne particles generated by contact. Low-metallic friction materials, both commercial and laboratory-produced, were tested against cast iron discs. The tests parameters used correspond to mild sliding conditions resembling those faced in real braking. Such conditions are characteristic of driving in urban areas, where the expose to traffic PM is concentrated. A specific methodology of analysis was developed, based on SEM/EDXS techniques. Using this methodology, comparative investigations between the elemental composition of the virgin friction materials, the worn surfaces of the friction materials and the airborne particles collected during the tribological tests were carried out. The results point out the triboxidative wear as the main mechanism of the PM brake emissions generation. Moreover, particles produced by abrasive wear can be also directly emitted to the environment.

Particulate Matter Emission Issues in Brake Systems / Gomes Nogueira, Ana Paula. - (2022 Jul 01), pp. 1-124. [10.15168/11572_348039]

Particulate Matter Emission Issues in Brake Systems

Gomes Nogueira, Ana Paula
2022-07-01

Abstract

Automotive brake systems are source of particulate matter (PM) emissions, particularly in the urban areas. Several human ill-health are related with this kind of pollution. Along tire wear, road wear and dust from resuspension, the brake wear comprises the most relevant non-exhaust source of road traffic related emissions. Aiming at studying the PM brake emissions, this thesis is composed of an introductory part containing the main concepts and the state of art of the main subjects; and the experimental part, which comprehends three investigations. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 are dedicated to the introduction part. Chapter 2 provides a brief description of the friction and wear, as well as the fundamental principles of braking by contact. Chapter 3 discuss the disc braking system, with particular attention to the pad friction materials. Chapter 4 is dedicated to friction layer: the layer usually developing at the disc/pad interface, affecting the performances of the tribological system. Finally, Chapter 5 provides an extensive discussion of the issues related to the particulate matter originated from disc brake systems. The experimental part is presented in the Chapters 6, 7, 8 and 9. Chapter 6 describes the methodology applied in all the investigations. Chapter 7 investigates the PM emissions behavior and its interaction with the friction and wear, aiming to identify the mechanism of generation the PM emissions. A copper-containing and a copper-free commercial friction materials were used, with particular emphasis on the effect of the scorching treatment. The Chapter 8 is dedicated at investigating the tribological behavior and the corresponding PM emissions in two Cu-free commercial friction materials, aiming to a better understanding the effect of abrasive ingredients on the emissions generation. Finally, the Chapter 9 investigated the addition of natural ingredient rice husk in a new eco-friendly Cu-free brake friction material composition, focusing the attention on the tribological and emissions behavior. All tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with an enclosure, especially designed for investigating the tribological properties, as well as the airborne particles generated by contact. Low-metallic friction materials, both commercial and laboratory-produced, were tested against cast iron discs. The tests parameters used correspond to mild sliding conditions resembling those faced in real braking. Such conditions are characteristic of driving in urban areas, where the expose to traffic PM is concentrated. A specific methodology of analysis was developed, based on SEM/EDXS techniques. Using this methodology, comparative investigations between the elemental composition of the virgin friction materials, the worn surfaces of the friction materials and the airborne particles collected during the tribological tests were carried out. The results point out the triboxidative wear as the main mechanism of the PM brake emissions generation. Moreover, particles produced by abrasive wear can be also directly emitted to the environment.
XXVIII
2018-2019
Ingegneria industriale (29/10/12-)
Materials, Mechatronics and Systems Engineering
Gialanella, Stefano
Straffelini, Giovanni
no
Inglese
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/348039
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