We present an SI epidemic model whereby a continuous structuring variable captures variability in proliferative potential and resistance to infection among susceptible individuals. The occurrence of heritable, spontaneous changes in these phenotypic characteristics and the presence of a fitness trade-off between resistance to infection and proliferative potential are explicitly incorporated into the model. The model comprises an ordinary differential equation for the number of infected individuals that is coupled with a partial integrodifferential equation for the population density function of susceptible individuals through an integral term. The expression for the basic reproduction number R is derived, the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium of the model are characterised and a threshold theorem involving R is proved. Analytical results are integrated with the results of numerical simulations of a calibrated version of the model based on the results of artificial selection experiments in a host-parasite system. The results of our mathematical study disentangle the impact of different evolutionary parameters on the spread of infectious diseases and the consequent phenotypic adaption of susceptible individuals. In particular, these results provide a theoretical basis for the observation that infectious diseases exerting stronger selective pressures on susceptible individuals and being characterised by higher infection rates are more likely to spread. Moreover, our results indicate that heritable, spontaneous phenotypic changes in proliferative potential and resistance to infection can either promote or prevent the spread of infectious diseases depending on the strength of selection acting on susceptible individuals prior to infection. Finally, we demonstrate that, when an endemic equilibrium is established, higher levels of resistance to infection and lower degrees of phenotypic heterogeneity among susceptible individuals are to be expected in the presence of infections which are characterised by lower rates of death and exert stronger selective pressures.

Evolutionary dynamics in an SI epidemic model with phenotype-structured susceptible compartment / Lorenzi, Tommaso; Pugliese, Andrea; Sensi, Mattia; Zardini, Agnese. - In: JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BIOLOGY. - ISSN 0303-6812. - 83:6-7(2021), pp. 72.1-72.30. [10.1007/s00285-021-01703-1]

Evolutionary dynamics in an SI epidemic model with phenotype-structured susceptible compartment

Lorenzi, Tommaso;Pugliese, Andrea;Sensi, Mattia;Zardini, Agnese
2021

Abstract

We present an SI epidemic model whereby a continuous structuring variable captures variability in proliferative potential and resistance to infection among susceptible individuals. The occurrence of heritable, spontaneous changes in these phenotypic characteristics and the presence of a fitness trade-off between resistance to infection and proliferative potential are explicitly incorporated into the model. The model comprises an ordinary differential equation for the number of infected individuals that is coupled with a partial integrodifferential equation for the population density function of susceptible individuals through an integral term. The expression for the basic reproduction number R is derived, the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium of the model are characterised and a threshold theorem involving R is proved. Analytical results are integrated with the results of numerical simulations of a calibrated version of the model based on the results of artificial selection experiments in a host-parasite system. The results of our mathematical study disentangle the impact of different evolutionary parameters on the spread of infectious diseases and the consequent phenotypic adaption of susceptible individuals. In particular, these results provide a theoretical basis for the observation that infectious diseases exerting stronger selective pressures on susceptible individuals and being characterised by higher infection rates are more likely to spread. Moreover, our results indicate that heritable, spontaneous phenotypic changes in proliferative potential and resistance to infection can either promote or prevent the spread of infectious diseases depending on the strength of selection acting on susceptible individuals prior to infection. Finally, we demonstrate that, when an endemic equilibrium is established, higher levels of resistance to infection and lower degrees of phenotypic heterogeneity among susceptible individuals are to be expected in the presence of infections which are characterised by lower rates of death and exert stronger selective pressures.
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Lorenzi, Tommaso; Pugliese, Andrea; Sensi, Mattia; Zardini, Agnese
Evolutionary dynamics in an SI epidemic model with phenotype-structured susceptible compartment / Lorenzi, Tommaso; Pugliese, Andrea; Sensi, Mattia; Zardini, Agnese. - In: JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BIOLOGY. - ISSN 0303-6812. - 83:6-7(2021), pp. 72.1-72.30. [10.1007/s00285-021-01703-1]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11572/328968
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