Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as refrigerators, air-conditioners and space heaters, offer significant potential for short-term modulation of their aggregate power consumption. This ability can be used in principle to provide frequency response services, but controlling a multitude of devices to provide a measured collective response has proven to be challenging. Many controller implementations struggle to manage simultaneously the short-term response and the long-term payback, whereas others rely on a real-time command-and-control infrastructure to resolve this issue. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the control of TCLs that allows for accurate modulation of the aggregate power consumption of a large collection of appliances through stochastic control. By construction, the control scheme is well suited for decentralized implementation, and allows each appliance to enforce strict temperature limits. We also present a particular implementation that results in analytically tractable solutions both for the global response and for the device-level control actions. Computer simulations demonstrate the ability of the controller to modulate the power consumption of a population of heterogeneous appliances according to a reference power profile. Finally, envelope constraints are established for the collective demand response flexibility of a heterogeneous set of TCLs.

Decentralized control of thermostatic loads for flexible demand response / Tindemans, Simon H.; Trovato, Vincenzo; Strbac, Goran. - In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 1063-6536. - 2015, 23:5(2015), pp. 1685-1700. [10.1109/TCST.2014.2381163]

Decentralized control of thermostatic loads for flexible demand response

Trovato, Vincenzo;
2015-01-01

Abstract

Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as refrigerators, air-conditioners and space heaters, offer significant potential for short-term modulation of their aggregate power consumption. This ability can be used in principle to provide frequency response services, but controlling a multitude of devices to provide a measured collective response has proven to be challenging. Many controller implementations struggle to manage simultaneously the short-term response and the long-term payback, whereas others rely on a real-time command-and-control infrastructure to resolve this issue. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the control of TCLs that allows for accurate modulation of the aggregate power consumption of a large collection of appliances through stochastic control. By construction, the control scheme is well suited for decentralized implementation, and allows each appliance to enforce strict temperature limits. We also present a particular implementation that results in analytically tractable solutions both for the global response and for the device-level control actions. Computer simulations demonstrate the ability of the controller to modulate the power consumption of a population of heterogeneous appliances according to a reference power profile. Finally, envelope constraints are established for the collective demand response flexibility of a heterogeneous set of TCLs.
2015
5
Tindemans, Simon H.; Trovato, Vincenzo; Strbac, Goran
Decentralized control of thermostatic loads for flexible demand response / Tindemans, Simon H.; Trovato, Vincenzo; Strbac, Goran. - In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 1063-6536. - 2015, 23:5(2015), pp. 1685-1700. [10.1109/TCST.2014.2381163]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/317288
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