Rock–ice avalanches are liquid–granular flows that consist of a mixture of rock, ice and a liquid. The dynamics that distinguishes these types of flows from other geophysical flows is the ice melting. This process is responsible for mass and momentum transfers between the solid and liquid components of the mixture and for the effects of lubrication and fluidization that reduce the mixture strength. In this work, we analyse the problem from a mathematical point of view. Starting from the partial differential equations of a complete three-phase approach, we identify two basic assumptions that can be used to build a framework of classes of simplified models. The implications of these assumptions on the physical description of the flow are carefully analysed for each class, and particular attention is paid to the simplification of the melting process expressed in terms of mass and momentum transfers. Moreover, the derived framework allows us to classify the existing literature models and to identify a new class of models that can be considered a reasonable trade-off between simplicity and completeness. Finally, the mathematical nature of each class is investigated by performing an in-depth analysis of the eigenvalues. Results show that the most simplified models are strictly hyperbolic, while the most complete approaches are affected by a loss of hyperbolicity in given ranges of the model parameters. Further research is necessary to understand the reasons and the numerical implications of this feature.

A mathematical framework for modelling rock-ice avalanches / Sansone, Stefania; Zugliani, Daniel; Rosatti, Giorgio. - In: JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS. - ISSN 1469-7645. - 919:(2021), pp. A8.1-A8.53. [10.1017/jfm.2021.348]

### A mathematical framework for modelling rock-ice avalanches

#### Abstract

Rock–ice avalanches are liquid–granular flows that consist of a mixture of rock, ice and a liquid. The dynamics that distinguishes these types of flows from other geophysical flows is the ice melting. This process is responsible for mass and momentum transfers between the solid and liquid components of the mixture and for the effects of lubrication and fluidization that reduce the mixture strength. In this work, we analyse the problem from a mathematical point of view. Starting from the partial differential equations of a complete three-phase approach, we identify two basic assumptions that can be used to build a framework of classes of simplified models. The implications of these assumptions on the physical description of the flow are carefully analysed for each class, and particular attention is paid to the simplification of the melting process expressed in terms of mass and momentum transfers. Moreover, the derived framework allows us to classify the existing literature models and to identify a new class of models that can be considered a reasonable trade-off between simplicity and completeness. Finally, the mathematical nature of each class is investigated by performing an in-depth analysis of the eigenvalues. Results show that the most simplified models are strictly hyperbolic, while the most complete approaches are affected by a loss of hyperbolicity in given ranges of the model parameters. Further research is necessary to understand the reasons and the numerical implications of this feature.
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Sansone, Stefania; Zugliani, Daniel; Rosatti, Giorgio
A mathematical framework for modelling rock-ice avalanches / Sansone, Stefania; Zugliani, Daniel; Rosatti, Giorgio. - In: JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS. - ISSN 1469-7645. - 919:(2021), pp. A8.1-A8.53. [10.1017/jfm.2021.348]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: `http://hdl.handle.net/11572/307571`
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