Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide are often subject to out-of-plane deformation, but its influence on electronic and nanomechanical properties remains poorly understood. These physical distortions modulate important properties which can be studied by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopic mapping. Herein, we have identified and investigated different geometries of line defects in graphene and molybdenum disulfide such as standing collapsed wrinkles, folded wrinkles, and grain boundaries that exhibit distinct strain and doping. In addition, we apply nanomechanical atomic force microscopy to determine the influence of these defects on local stiffness. For wrinkles of similar height, the stiffness of graphene was found to be higher than that of molybdenum disulfide by 10-15% due to stronger in-plane covalent bonding. Interestingly, deflated graphene nanobubbles exhibited entirely different characteristics from wrinkles and exhibit the lowest stiffness of all graphene defects. Density functional theory reveals alteration of the bandstructures of graphene and MoS2 due to the wrinkled structure; such modulation is higher in MoS2 compared to graphene. Using this approach, we can ascertain that wrinkles are subject to significant strain but minimal doping, while edges show significant doping and minimal strain. Furthermore, defects in graphene predominantly show compressive strain and increased carrier density. Defects in molybdenum disulfide predominantly show tensile strain and reduced carrier density, with increasing tensile strain minimizing doping across all defects in both materials. The present work provides critical fundamental insights into the electronic and nanomechanical influence of intrinsic structural defects at the nanoscale, which will be valuable in straintronic device engineering.

Structural Defects Modulate Electronic and Nanomechanical Properties of 2D Materials / Tripathi, M.; Lee, F.; Michail, A.; Anestopoulos, D.; Mchugh, J. G.; Ogilvie, S. P.; Large, M. J.; Graf, A. A.; Lynch, P. J.; Parthenios, J.; Papagelis, K.; Roy, S.; Saadi, M. A. S. R.; Rahman, M. M.; Pugno, N. M.; King, A. A. K.; Ajayan, P. M.; Dalton, A. B.. - In: ACS NANO. - ISSN 1936-0851. - 15:2(2021), pp. 2520-2531. [10.1021/acsnano.0c06701]

Structural Defects Modulate Electronic and Nanomechanical Properties of 2D Materials

Pugno N. M.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide are often subject to out-of-plane deformation, but its influence on electronic and nanomechanical properties remains poorly understood. These physical distortions modulate important properties which can be studied by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopic mapping. Herein, we have identified and investigated different geometries of line defects in graphene and molybdenum disulfide such as standing collapsed wrinkles, folded wrinkles, and grain boundaries that exhibit distinct strain and doping. In addition, we apply nanomechanical atomic force microscopy to determine the influence of these defects on local stiffness. For wrinkles of similar height, the stiffness of graphene was found to be higher than that of molybdenum disulfide by 10-15% due to stronger in-plane covalent bonding. Interestingly, deflated graphene nanobubbles exhibited entirely different characteristics from wrinkles and exhibit the lowest stiffness of all graphene defects. Density functional theory reveals alteration of the bandstructures of graphene and MoS2 due to the wrinkled structure; such modulation is higher in MoS2 compared to graphene. Using this approach, we can ascertain that wrinkles are subject to significant strain but minimal doping, while edges show significant doping and minimal strain. Furthermore, defects in graphene predominantly show compressive strain and increased carrier density. Defects in molybdenum disulfide predominantly show tensile strain and reduced carrier density, with increasing tensile strain minimizing doping across all defects in both materials. The present work provides critical fundamental insights into the electronic and nanomechanical influence of intrinsic structural defects at the nanoscale, which will be valuable in straintronic device engineering.
2021
2
Tripathi, M.; Lee, F.; Michail, A.; Anestopoulos, D.; Mchugh, J. G.; Ogilvie, S. P.; Large, M. J.; Graf, A. A.; Lynch, P. J.; Parthenios, J.; Papagelis, K.; Roy, S.; Saadi, M. A. S. R.; Rahman, M. M.; Pugno, N. M.; King, A. A. K.; Ajayan, P. M.; Dalton, A. B.
Structural Defects Modulate Electronic and Nanomechanical Properties of 2D Materials / Tripathi, M.; Lee, F.; Michail, A.; Anestopoulos, D.; Mchugh, J. G.; Ogilvie, S. P.; Large, M. J.; Graf, A. A.; Lynch, P. J.; Parthenios, J.; Papagelis, K.; Roy, S.; Saadi, M. A. S. R.; Rahman, M. M.; Pugno, N. M.; King, A. A. K.; Ajayan, P. M.; Dalton, A. B.. - In: ACS NANO. - ISSN 1936-0851. - 15:2(2021), pp. 2520-2531. [10.1021/acsnano.0c06701]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
495-ACSNANO21-Structural-Defects-Modulate-Properties-compressed.pdf

Solo gestori archivio

Tipologia: Versione editoriale (Publisher’s layout)
Licenza: Tutti i diritti riservati (All rights reserved)
Dimensione 3.34 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.34 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/302359
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 51
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 50
social impact