The functional properties displayed by graphene oxide (GO)-polymer nanocomposites are strongly affected by the dispersion ability of GO sheets in the polymeric matrix, which can be largely improved by functionalization with organosilanes. The grafting to GO of organosilanes with the general formula RSi(OCH3)3 is generally explained by the condensation reactions of silanols with GO reactive groups. In this study, the influence of the organic group on the RSi(OCH3)3 grafting ability was analyzed in depth, taking into account the interactions of the R end chain group with GO oxidized groups. Model systems composed of commercial graphene oxide reacted with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, (MaPTMS), respectively, were characterized by natural abundance 13C, 15N and 29Si solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron spin resonance (ESR). The silane organic tail significantly impacts the grafting, both in terms of the degree of functionalization and direct interaction with GO reactive sites. Both the NMR and XRD proved that this is particularly relevant for APTMS and to a lower extent for MPTMS. Moreover, the epoxy functional groups on the GO sheets appeared to be the preferential anchoring sites for the silane condensation reaction. The characterization approach was applied to the GO samples prepared by the nitric acid etching of graphene and functionalized with the same organosilanes, which were used as a filler in acrylic coatings obtained by cataphoresis, making it possible to correlate the structural properties and the corrosion protection ability of the layers.

Effect of the Organic Functional Group on the Grafting Ability of Trialkoxysilanes onto Graphene Oxide: A Combined NMR, XRD, and ESR Study / Calovi, Massimo; Callone, Emanuela; Ceccato, Riccardo; Deflorian, Flavio; Rossi, Stefano; Dirè, Sandra. - In: MATERIALS. - ISSN 1996-1944. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:23(2019), pp. 3828-3840. [10.3390/ma12233828]

Effect of the Organic Functional Group on the Grafting Ability of Trialkoxysilanes onto Graphene Oxide: A Combined NMR, XRD, and ESR Study

Massimo Calovi;Emanuela Callone;Riccardo Ceccato;Flavio Deflorian;Stefano Rossi;Sandra Dirè
2019

Abstract

The functional properties displayed by graphene oxide (GO)-polymer nanocomposites are strongly affected by the dispersion ability of GO sheets in the polymeric matrix, which can be largely improved by functionalization with organosilanes. The grafting to GO of organosilanes with the general formula RSi(OCH3)3 is generally explained by the condensation reactions of silanols with GO reactive groups. In this study, the influence of the organic group on the RSi(OCH3)3 grafting ability was analyzed in depth, taking into account the interactions of the R end chain group with GO oxidized groups. Model systems composed of commercial graphene oxide reacted with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, (MaPTMS), respectively, were characterized by natural abundance 13C, 15N and 29Si solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron spin resonance (ESR). The silane organic tail significantly impacts the grafting, both in terms of the degree of functionalization and direct interaction with GO reactive sites. Both the NMR and XRD proved that this is particularly relevant for APTMS and to a lower extent for MPTMS. Moreover, the epoxy functional groups on the GO sheets appeared to be the preferential anchoring sites for the silane condensation reaction. The characterization approach was applied to the GO samples prepared by the nitric acid etching of graphene and functionalized with the same organosilanes, which were used as a filler in acrylic coatings obtained by cataphoresis, making it possible to correlate the structural properties and the corrosion protection ability of the layers.
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Calovi, Massimo; Callone, Emanuela; Ceccato, Riccardo; Deflorian, Flavio; Rossi, Stefano; Dirè, Sandra
Effect of the Organic Functional Group on the Grafting Ability of Trialkoxysilanes onto Graphene Oxide: A Combined NMR, XRD, and ESR Study / Calovi, Massimo; Callone, Emanuela; Ceccato, Riccardo; Deflorian, Flavio; Rossi, Stefano; Dirè, Sandra. - In: MATERIALS. - ISSN 1996-1944. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:23(2019), pp. 3828-3840. [10.3390/ma12233828]
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