Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are rarely diagnosed in children younger than 2 years, because diagnosis is based entirely on behavioral tests. Oxidative damage may play a central role in this pathogenesis, together with the interconnected transmethylation cycle and transsulfuration pathway. In an attempt to clarify and quantify the relationship between oxidative stress-related blood biomarkers and ASDs, a systematic literature review was carried out. For each identified study, mean biomarker levels were compared in cases and controls providing a point estimate, the mean ratio, for each biomarker. After meta-analysis, the ASD patients showed decreased blood levels of reduced glutathione (27%), glutathione peroxidase (18%), methionine (13%), and cysteine (14%) and increased concentrations of oxidized glutathione (45%) relative to controls, whereas superoxide dismutase, homocysteine, and cystathionine showed no association with ASDs. For the C677T allele in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), homozygous mutant subjects (TT) showed a meta-OR of 2.26 (95% CI 1.30-3.91) of being affected by ASD with respect to the homozygous nonmutant (CC). Case-control studies on blood levels of vitamins suggest a lack of association (folic acid and vitamin B12) or rare association (vitamins A, B6, C, D, E). Sparse results were available for other biomarkers (ceruloplasmin, catalase, cysteinylglycine, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, nitric oxide) and for polymorphisms in other genes. Existing evidence is heterogeneous and many studies are limited by small sample size and effects. In conclusion, existing evidence suggests a role for glutathione metabolism, the transmethylation cycle, and the transsulfuration pathway, although these findings should be interpreted with caution, and larger, more standardized studies are warranted.
Oxidative stress-related biomarkers in autism: Systematic review and meta-analyses / Frustaci, A; Neri, M; Cesario, A; Adams, Jb; Domenici, Enrico; Dalla Bernardina, B; Bonassi, S.. - In: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY & MEDICINE. - ISSN 0891-5849. - 52:10(2012), pp. 2128-2141.
|Titolo:||Oxidative stress-related biomarkers in autism: Systematic review and meta-analyses|
|Autori:||Frustaci, A; Neri, M; Cesario, A; Adams, Jb; Domenici, Enrico; Dalla Bernardina, B; Bonassi, S.|
|Titolo del periodico:||FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY & MEDICINE|
|Anno di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Numero e parte del fascicolo:||10|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-84861035734|
|Codice identificativo Pubmed:||22542447|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000305378100008|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.03.011|
|Citazione:||Oxidative stress-related biomarkers in autism: Systematic review and meta-analyses / Frustaci, A; Neri, M; Cesario, A; Adams, Jb; Domenici, Enrico; Dalla Bernardina, B; Bonassi, S.. - In: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY & MEDICINE. - ISSN 0891-5849. - 52:10(2012), pp. 2128-2141.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista (Journal article)|
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