Hyperproliferating cancer cells produce energy mainly from aerobic glycolysis, which results in elevated ROS levels. Thus aggressive tumors often possess enhanced anti-oxidant capacity that impedes many current anti-cancer therapies. Additionally, in ROS-compromised cancer cells ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is often deregulated for timely removal of oxidized proteins, thus enabling cell survival. Taken that UPS maintains the turnover of factors controlling cell cycle and apoptosis--such as p53 or p73, it represents a promising target for pharmaceutical intervention. Enhancing oxidative insult in already ROS-compromised cancer cells appears as an attractive anti-tumor scenario. TAp73 is a bona fide tumor suppressor that drives the chemosensitivity of some cancers to cisplatin or γ-radiation. It is an important drug target in tumors where p53 is lost or mutated. Here we discovered a novel synergistic mechanism leading to potent p73 activation and cancer cell death by oxidative stress and inhibition of 20S proteasomes. Using a small-molecule inhibitor of 20S proteasome and ROS-inducer--withaferin A (WA), we found that WA-induced ROS activates JNK kinase and stabilizes phase II anti-oxidant response effector NF-E2-related transcription factor (NRF2). This results in activation of Nrf2 target--NQO1 (NADPH quinone oxidoreductase), and TAp73 protein stabilization. The observed effect was ablated by the ROS scavenger--NAC. Concurrently, stress-activated JNK phosphorylates TAp73 at multiple serine and threonine residues, which is crucial to ablate TAp73/MDM2 complex and to promote TAp73 transcriptional function and induction of robust apoptosis. Taken together our data demonstrate that ROS insult in combination with the inhibition of 20S proteasome and TAp73 activation endows synthetic lethality in cancer cells. Thus, our results may enable the establishment of a novel pharmacological strategy to exploit the enhanced sensitivity of tumors to elevated ROS and proteasomal stress to kill advanced tumors by pharmacological activation of TAp73 using molecules like WA.
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|Titolo:||JNK-NQO1 axis drives TAp73-mediated tumor suppression upon oxidative and proteasomal stress.|
|Autori:||A., Kostecka; A., Sznarkowska; K., Meller; P., Acedo; Y., Shi; H. A., Mohammad; A., Kawiak; Lion, Mattia; A., Królicka; M., Wilhelm; Inga, Alberto; J., Zawacka Pankau|
|Titolo del periodico:||CELL DEATH & DISEASE|
|Anno di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-84928042220|
|Codice identificativo Pubmed:||25341038|
|Codice identificativo WOS:||WOS:000344994000056|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2014.408|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista (Journal article)|