During neural development, a relatively small and formerly considered homogeneous population of Neural Stem cells (NSCs) gives rise to the extraordinary complexity proper of the Central Nervous System (CNS). These represent populations of self-renewing multipotent cells able to differentiate into a variety of neuronal and glial cell types in a time- and regionspecific manner throughout developmental stages and that account for a weak regenerative potential in the adult brain [1]. In the adult mammalian CNS, the presence of NSCs has been extensively investigated in two regions, the SVZ and the SGZ of the hippocampus, two specialized niches that control NSCs divisions in order to physiologically regulate their proliferative (symmetrical divisions) vs differentiative fate (asymmetrical divisions) [2]. In the early ‘90s it was shown that NSCs could be extracted from the developing and adult mammalian brain and expanded/manipulated/differentiated in vitro (Fig. 1). This has represented a key step in the field, since the obtainment of in vitro NSC systems has been very useful in the last years in order to progress toward disclosure of the complex interplay of different extrinsic (signaling pathways) and intrinsic (transcription factors and epigenetics) signals that govern identity and functional properties of brain tissue-specific stem/progenitors [3]. Furthermore, it will also be a key step towards their exploitation for a better dissection of the molecular processes occurring in neurodegeneration [4]. Finally, NSC systems might represent major tools for the potential development of new cell-based and pharmacological treatments of neurodegenerative disorders and for assaying their toxicological effects [5]. Here we will review the functional properties of different in vitro NSC systems, providing also a direct comparison with NSCs present in vivo. Furthermore, we will discuss some of recent advancements in the development of in vitro systems that try to re-create in vitro some of the aspects of the physiological NSCs niches.

Systems for ex-vivo Isolation and Culturing of Neural Stem Cells -- Neural Stem Cells - New Perspectives

Casarosa, Simona;Zasso, Jacopo;Conti, Luciano
2013

Abstract

During neural development, a relatively small and formerly considered homogeneous population of Neural Stem cells (NSCs) gives rise to the extraordinary complexity proper of the Central Nervous System (CNS). These represent populations of self-renewing multipotent cells able to differentiate into a variety of neuronal and glial cell types in a time- and regionspecific manner throughout developmental stages and that account for a weak regenerative potential in the adult brain [1]. In the adult mammalian CNS, the presence of NSCs has been extensively investigated in two regions, the SVZ and the SGZ of the hippocampus, two specialized niches that control NSCs divisions in order to physiologically regulate their proliferative (symmetrical divisions) vs differentiative fate (asymmetrical divisions) [2]. In the early ‘90s it was shown that NSCs could be extracted from the developing and adult mammalian brain and expanded/manipulated/differentiated in vitro (Fig. 1). This has represented a key step in the field, since the obtainment of in vitro NSC systems has been very useful in the last years in order to progress toward disclosure of the complex interplay of different extrinsic (signaling pathways) and intrinsic (transcription factors and epigenetics) signals that govern identity and functional properties of brain tissue-specific stem/progenitors [3]. Furthermore, it will also be a key step towards their exploitation for a better dissection of the molecular processes occurring in neurodegeneration [4]. Finally, NSC systems might represent major tools for the potential development of new cell-based and pharmacological treatments of neurodegenerative disorders and for assaying their toxicological effects [5]. Here we will review the functional properties of different in vitro NSC systems, providing also a direct comparison with NSCs present in vivo. Furthermore, we will discuss some of recent advancements in the development of in vitro systems that try to re-create in vitro some of the aspects of the physiological NSCs niches.
L. Bonfanti
Neural Stem Cells - New Perspectives
Croazia
InTech
9789535110699
Casarosa, Simona; Zasso, Jacopo; Conti, Luciano
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/99168
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