The aim of this book is to promote class- and stratification research in European survey research in general, and European Social Survey (ESS) in particular. Our goal is also to encourage European researchers to use a broader range of class schemes and to present a guide on how to use these models. As a result of this project we are able to present an updated picture of European class structure and answer questions on how social class corresponds to various welfare indicators. Four class models are highlighted, including Goldthorpe/Erikson/Portocarero’s, Wright’s, and Esping Andersen’s class schemes. We may not necessarily reach the same solutions that Erikson/ Goldthorpe /Portocarero or Wright would have obtained if they had done the same operationalizations themselves. Regardless of this, we do believe that this is as close as we can get to the original class models. The original version of Erikson/Goldthorpe/Portocarero typology (also known as EGP classes) is closely related to Harry Ganzeboom’s spss-program. Without changing the logic of his spss-program, we have done a number of technical adjustments to refrain from an inflation of low-skilled service employees into service class I (i.e. avoiding a problem in several applications of the model in the past). However, none of the technical adjustments significantly changes the results. The most significant difference, as fare as the EGP classes are concerned, is related to the choice of theoretical framework. In the original version, based on a Neo-Weberian theory of stratification, routine non manual employees (class IIIb) are regarded as member of the working class. In Goldthorpe’s more recent contract theoretical framework the same group are treated as a part of the working class (modified labour contract). The status of class IIIb as a part of the middle class or the working class also varies among researchers that use the EGP-model. Wright’s typologies are developed to match his original control/power model; based on 1) ownership, authority and work autonomy and 2) his later (exploitation) model where autonomy is replaced with skill and expert assets. The construction of Wright’s typologies is based on a number of second best options and adjustments to ESS. Nevertheless, we end up with more or less the same results if we compare the original model and our version. It is also argued that our version of Wright’s first class scheme, with additional sub-categories based on skill, enables us to make a number of interesting observations about class relations left out in competing class schemes. Esping Andersen’s typology was developed in Barcelona in collaboration between Gøsta Esping Andersen and Ivano Bison in 2000. The reconstruction and development of Wright’s class schemes has mainly been done in collaboration between Håkon Leiulfsrud and Heidi Jensberg. Our analysis is based on the 21 countries that are represented in the ESS- 2002/3 data set in December 2004. Unfortunately, it does not include France due to crucial limitations in the occupational coding of the French survey (only including isco-88 codes at 2 digit level). The Norwegian 2002/3 Survey does not include information about the occupations of self-employees. The standardized version of EGP can therefore not be applied in the Norwegian case without some revisions (a modified syntax for Norway where farmers are excluded as a distinct category). We are grateful for the support we have received from Knut Kalgraff Skjåk at the Norwegian Social Science Services (NSD) in Bergen and from our colleague, Kristen Ringdal. Professor Wright has also read and made useful comments on a number of aspects of the report including the problem of managers in the EGP scheme and in his models.

Social Class in Europe. European Social Survey 2002/3

Bison, Ivano;
2005

Abstract

The aim of this book is to promote class- and stratification research in European survey research in general, and European Social Survey (ESS) in particular. Our goal is also to encourage European researchers to use a broader range of class schemes and to present a guide on how to use these models. As a result of this project we are able to present an updated picture of European class structure and answer questions on how social class corresponds to various welfare indicators. Four class models are highlighted, including Goldthorpe/Erikson/Portocarero’s, Wright’s, and Esping Andersen’s class schemes. We may not necessarily reach the same solutions that Erikson/ Goldthorpe /Portocarero or Wright would have obtained if they had done the same operationalizations themselves. Regardless of this, we do believe that this is as close as we can get to the original class models. The original version of Erikson/Goldthorpe/Portocarero typology (also known as EGP classes) is closely related to Harry Ganzeboom’s spss-program. Without changing the logic of his spss-program, we have done a number of technical adjustments to refrain from an inflation of low-skilled service employees into service class I (i.e. avoiding a problem in several applications of the model in the past). However, none of the technical adjustments significantly changes the results. The most significant difference, as fare as the EGP classes are concerned, is related to the choice of theoretical framework. In the original version, based on a Neo-Weberian theory of stratification, routine non manual employees (class IIIb) are regarded as member of the working class. In Goldthorpe’s more recent contract theoretical framework the same group are treated as a part of the working class (modified labour contract). The status of class IIIb as a part of the middle class or the working class also varies among researchers that use the EGP-model. Wright’s typologies are developed to match his original control/power model; based on 1) ownership, authority and work autonomy and 2) his later (exploitation) model where autonomy is replaced with skill and expert assets. The construction of Wright’s typologies is based on a number of second best options and adjustments to ESS. Nevertheless, we end up with more or less the same results if we compare the original model and our version. It is also argued that our version of Wright’s first class scheme, with additional sub-categories based on skill, enables us to make a number of interesting observations about class relations left out in competing class schemes. Esping Andersen’s typology was developed in Barcelona in collaboration between Gøsta Esping Andersen and Ivano Bison in 2000. The reconstruction and development of Wright’s class schemes has mainly been done in collaboration between Håkon Leiulfsrud and Heidi Jensberg. Our analysis is based on the 21 countries that are represented in the ESS- 2002/3 data set in December 2004. Unfortunately, it does not include France due to crucial limitations in the occupational coding of the French survey (only including isco-88 codes at 2 digit level). The Norwegian 2002/3 Survey does not include information about the occupations of self-employees. The standardized version of EGP can therefore not be applied in the Norwegian case without some revisions (a modified syntax for Norway where farmers are excluded as a distinct category). We are grateful for the support we have received from Knut Kalgraff Skjåk at the Norwegian Social Science Services (NSD) in Bergen and from our colleague, Kristen Ringdal. Professor Wright has also read and made useful comments on a number of aspects of the report including the problem of managers in the EGP scheme and in his models.
Trondheim
Norwegian university of science and technology Samfunnsforskning
9788275701617
Bison, Ivano; H., Leiulfsrud; H., Jensberg
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