Quantum computing is an up-and-coming technology that is expected to revolutionize the computation paradigm in the next few years. Qubits, the primary computing elements of quantum circuits, exploit the quantum physics proprieties to increase the parallelism and speed of computation drastically. Unfortunately, besides being intrinsically noisy, qubits have also been shown to be highly susceptible to external sources of faults, such as ionizing radiation. The latest discoveries highlight a much higher radiation sensitivity of qubits than traditional transistors and identify a much more complex fault model than bit-flip.We propose a framework to identify the quantum circuits sensitivity to radiation-induced faults and the probability for a fault in a qubit to propagate to the output. Based on the latest studies and radiation experiments performed on real quantum machines, we model the transient faults in a qubit as a phase shift with a parametrized magnitude. Additionally, our framework can inject multiple qubit faults, tuning the phase shift magnitude based on the proximity of the qubit to the particle strike location. As we show in the paper, the proposed fault injector is highly flexible, and it can be used on both quantum circuit simulators and real quantum machines. We report the finding of more than 285, 249, 536 injections on the Qiskit simulator and 53, 248 injections on real IBM machines. We consider three quantum algorithms and identify the faults and qubits that are more likely to impact the output. We also consider the fault propagation dependence on the circuit scale, showing that the reliability profile for some quantum algorithms is scale-dependent, with increased impact from radiation-induced faults as we increase the number of qubits. Finally, we also consider multi qubits faults, showing that they are much more critical than single faults. The fault injector and the data presented in this paper are available in a public repository to allow further analysis.

QuFI: a Quantum Fault Injector to Measure the Reliability of Qubits and Quantum Circuits / Oliveira, Daniel; Giusto, Edoardo; Dri, Emanuele; Casciola, Nadir; Baheri, Betis; Guan, Qiang; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rech, Paolo. - (2022), pp. 137-149. (Intervento presentato al convegno DSN 2022 tenutosi a Baltimore, USA nel 27th-30th June 2022) [10.1109/DSN53405.2022.00025].

QuFI: a Quantum Fault Injector to Measure the Reliability of Qubits and Quantum Circuits

Rech, Paolo
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Quantum computing is an up-and-coming technology that is expected to revolutionize the computation paradigm in the next few years. Qubits, the primary computing elements of quantum circuits, exploit the quantum physics proprieties to increase the parallelism and speed of computation drastically. Unfortunately, besides being intrinsically noisy, qubits have also been shown to be highly susceptible to external sources of faults, such as ionizing radiation. The latest discoveries highlight a much higher radiation sensitivity of qubits than traditional transistors and identify a much more complex fault model than bit-flip.We propose a framework to identify the quantum circuits sensitivity to radiation-induced faults and the probability for a fault in a qubit to propagate to the output. Based on the latest studies and radiation experiments performed on real quantum machines, we model the transient faults in a qubit as a phase shift with a parametrized magnitude. Additionally, our framework can inject multiple qubit faults, tuning the phase shift magnitude based on the proximity of the qubit to the particle strike location. As we show in the paper, the proposed fault injector is highly flexible, and it can be used on both quantum circuit simulators and real quantum machines. We report the finding of more than 285, 249, 536 injections on the Qiskit simulator and 53, 248 injections on real IBM machines. We consider three quantum algorithms and identify the faults and qubits that are more likely to impact the output. We also consider the fault propagation dependence on the circuit scale, showing that the reliability profile for some quantum algorithms is scale-dependent, with increased impact from radiation-induced faults as we increase the number of qubits. Finally, we also consider multi qubits faults, showing that they are much more critical than single faults. The fault injector and the data presented in this paper are available in a public repository to allow further analysis.
2022
52nd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Proceedings
Piscataway, New Jersey, USA
IEEE/IFIP
978-1-6654-1693-1
Oliveira, Daniel; Giusto, Edoardo; Dri, Emanuele; Casciola, Nadir; Baheri, Betis; Guan, Qiang; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rech, Paolo
QuFI: a Quantum Fault Injector to Measure the Reliability of Qubits and Quantum Circuits / Oliveira, Daniel; Giusto, Edoardo; Dri, Emanuele; Casciola, Nadir; Baheri, Betis; Guan, Qiang; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rech, Paolo. - (2022), pp. 137-149. (Intervento presentato al convegno DSN 2022 tenutosi a Baltimore, USA nel 27th-30th June 2022) [10.1109/DSN53405.2022.00025].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11572/360389
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