Il Covid-19 ha generato fin da gennaio 2020 problematiche ripercussioni dal punto di vista giuridico. La gestione italiana dell’emergenza, infatti, si è dimostrata particolarmente critica anche a causa dell’impreparazione del Servizio Sanitario Nazionale. Il forte squilibrio tra le risorse necessarie e quelle messe a disposizione ha perfino condotto a considerare «scelte tragiche». Questo paper propone un’analisi degli scenari risarcitori collegati all’emergenza sanitaria esaminando le varie ipotesi di responsabilità civile. Una delle categorie che investirà il contenzioso post Covid-19 sarà quella tesa ad accertare la responsabilità per la morte dei medici. Molteplici sono poi le pretese risarcitorie che potrebbero essere fatte valere nei confronti delle strutture sanitarie, non solo da coloro che hanno contratto il virus nell’ambito delle cure o dai pazienti affetti da Covid-19 che hanno subito danni, ma anche dai malati per altre patologie cui siano state negate o posticipate le cure, essendo tutte le risorse del sistema sanitario destinate a far fronte alla pandemia. Di particolare rilievo sarà la responsabilità da contagio promossa nei confronti delle RSA. Le criticità del virus rischiano di condurre anche gli operatori sanitari ad un’eccessiva esposizione giudiziaria al punto da interrogarsi sulla necessità di una legislazione ad hoc della responsabilità sanitaria dell’emergenza, cioè di una norma di deroga all’operatività delle disposizioni della legge Gelli-Bianco e di quelle generali previste nel Codice Civile, o se invece quest’ultime possano considerarsi efficaci a difendere l’operato dei medici posti nell’effettiva difficoltà data dalla particolare situazione pandemica. Inoltre, si individua un’ulteriore responsabilità che potrebbe essere addebitata allo Stato e alle Regioni per quanto concerne la gestione dell’emergenza caratterizzata dall’omissione di precisi compiti istituzionali tesi a garantire la prevenzione della pandemia e tutelare la salute dei cittadini attraverso una preparedness in grado di fornire un’adeguata qualità dell’assistenza sanitaria anche in momenti tragici. Si prevede, quindi, un impegnativo contenzioso di massa volto ad accertare la responsabilità civile dello Stato e delle Regioni. Si auspica un intervento legislativo di natura transattiva che rappresenta uno strumento atto a permettere una gestione più efficiente delle risorse pubbliche e a consentire un ristoro capace di assicurare giustizia a quanti vantano pretese risarcitorie. In conclusione, non si è trascurato di analizzare l'esperienza di altri paesi comunitari, come Spagna e Francia, nella gestione dell'emergenza in ottica comparata e la conseguente responsabilità civile.

Covid-19 has generated negative effects from a legal perspective since January 2020. In fact, the Italian emergency management has proven to be of great importance during this period due to the ill-prepared National Health System. The strong imbalance between necessary and available resources has unfortunately led to consider «tragic choices». This paper will analyse the possible compensation scenarios related to insurgence of this unprecedented health emergency by examining the various hypotheses of civil liability Covid-related litigation that may be triggered by the pandemic. One of the key categories that will affect the post Covid-19 litigation will be the issue of ascertaining responsibility for the death of doctors. Multiple compensation claims could be further submitted against health facilities, not only by those who have contracted the virus in the context of care or by patients suffering from Covid-19 who have suffered damages, but also by patients for other diseases who suffered of care denial or postponement due to need to allocate the scarce resources within the health system to cope with the pandemic. Of particular importance will be the contagion-related liability promoted towards the social residences for the elderly. The general picture of the litigation that may follow the advent of the Covid pandemic calls for a careful evaluation of the judicial exposure of medical practitioners and health structures to med-mal actions. To be questioned is the need for ad hoc legislation on emergency health responsibility, or whether the provisions of the Gelli-Bianco law of 2017 and the general legislation provided for in the Civil Code can be deemed effective to provide, in the course of this litigation, an adequate consideration of the difficulties experienced by health providers during the complex and dramatic situation caused by the outburst of the pandemic. Furthermore, an additional responsibility could be envisaged against the State as well as individual Regions for their management of the emergency. These charges could include omissions of specific institutional tasks which were aimed at preventing the pandemic and protecting the citizens’ health, in order to being able to provide an adequate quality of healthcare amidst the tragic circumstances. A legislative intervention may provide for a specific no-fault compensation plan that could settle the litigation already launched at the end of 2020 against State and Regions. This solution may offer an instrument capable of allowing a more efficient management of public resources, providing a just compensation for the victims of the first wave of the pandemic. In conclusion, the paper considers the experiences of other EU countries such as Spain and France to analyse the issues in comparative perspective.

La responsabilità sanitaria nel post Covid-19: scenari e proposte per affrontare il contenzioso / Primiceri, Giorgia. - ELETTRONICO. - (2021), pp. 1-146. [10.15168/11572_304291]

La responsabilità sanitaria nel post Covid-19: scenari e proposte per affrontare il contenzioso

Primiceri, Giorgia
2021

Abstract

Covid-19 has generated negative effects from a legal perspective since January 2020. In fact, the Italian emergency management has proven to be of great importance during this period due to the ill-prepared National Health System. The strong imbalance between necessary and available resources has unfortunately led to consider «tragic choices». This paper will analyse the possible compensation scenarios related to insurgence of this unprecedented health emergency by examining the various hypotheses of civil liability Covid-related litigation that may be triggered by the pandemic. One of the key categories that will affect the post Covid-19 litigation will be the issue of ascertaining responsibility for the death of doctors. Multiple compensation claims could be further submitted against health facilities, not only by those who have contracted the virus in the context of care or by patients suffering from Covid-19 who have suffered damages, but also by patients for other diseases who suffered of care denial or postponement due to need to allocate the scarce resources within the health system to cope with the pandemic. Of particular importance will be the contagion-related liability promoted towards the social residences for the elderly. The general picture of the litigation that may follow the advent of the Covid pandemic calls for a careful evaluation of the judicial exposure of medical practitioners and health structures to med-mal actions. To be questioned is the need for ad hoc legislation on emergency health responsibility, or whether the provisions of the Gelli-Bianco law of 2017 and the general legislation provided for in the Civil Code can be deemed effective to provide, in the course of this litigation, an adequate consideration of the difficulties experienced by health providers during the complex and dramatic situation caused by the outburst of the pandemic. Furthermore, an additional responsibility could be envisaged against the State as well as individual Regions for their management of the emergency. These charges could include omissions of specific institutional tasks which were aimed at preventing the pandemic and protecting the citizens’ health, in order to being able to provide an adequate quality of healthcare amidst the tragic circumstances. A legislative intervention may provide for a specific no-fault compensation plan that could settle the litigation already launched at the end of 2020 against State and Regions. This solution may offer an instrument capable of allowing a more efficient management of public resources, providing a just compensation for the victims of the first wave of the pandemic. In conclusion, the paper considers the experiences of other EU countries such as Spain and France to analyse the issues in comparative perspective.
Trento
Università degli Studi di Trento. Facoltà di Giurisprudenza
978-88-8443-945-1
La responsabilità sanitaria nel post Covid-19: scenari e proposte per affrontare il contenzioso / Primiceri, Giorgia. - ELETTRONICO. - (2021), pp. 1-146. [10.15168/11572_304291]
Primiceri, Giorgia
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