One of the most challenging problems in repairing a damaged object using a hybrid additive machineis to detect the missing material and place it in the precise position in the working area. This workuses octrees to discretize both the original CAD model and the 3D scanned geometry and to comparethem in the process of identifying the mismatching volumes. Firstly, the presented software recursivelysubdivides the bounding box of the nominal solid model into eight octants at every iteration, dividingevery edge in two parts, recursively building an octree representation. For each depth level of the octree,the program checks whether the nodes intersect at least one triangle of the scanned model and only inthis case the node is marked as part of the model. This process proceeds until the desired resolution isreached. After this first step, the result is a compound of cubes that represents the shell of the scannedmodel. Secondly, the software deals with the scanned surface, which has to be converted in an octree too.To compute a boolean difference between the two octrees it is necessary that they are fully filled, so theone representing the scan must be expanded into the inside of the component. For this reason, DUOADDuses a ray–triangle intersecting algorithm to classify the leaf nodes of the octrees that are inside the shelland those outside the shell. If the number of intersections between the ray — traced from the node center— and the mesh is odd, then the node belongs to the volume inside the meshed surface. Otherwise, itbelongs to the surrounding volume. The data structures of the two octrees need to be consistent — i.e.they must have a coherent number of levels and leaves. An iterative algorithm has been developed inorder to uniform the octrees data structures. To perform the boolean comparison, DUOADD scans overthe data structure of both octrees at the same time and checks — with a NOR operation — whether thenodes are marked as “inside node” in both the octrees or not. The result of this comparison representsthe damaged spots. Once the analysis result is obtained, DUOADD joins all the nodes representing thedamage into a single solid body that can be exported in various file format as STEP, IGES or VTK.DUOADD allows to approach the repair problem from a new point of view and provides a powerful toolto obtain a solid model used to add the new material. Authors successfully employed DUOADD to repairdie injection molds and there are many other applications that could benefit from the use of this software.Many improvements are expected in the near future such as the binary encoding of the octree structureand the smoothing of the exported solid body shape.

DUOADD: a software to detect and export damages of 3D scanned objects / Perini, M.; Bosetti, P.. - ELETTRONICO. - (2019), pp. 391-402. ((Intervento presentato al convegno Sim-AM tenutosi a Pavia nel 12/09/2019.

DUOADD: a software to detect and export damages of 3D scanned objects

M. Perini;P. Bosetti
2019

Abstract

One of the most challenging problems in repairing a damaged object using a hybrid additive machineis to detect the missing material and place it in the precise position in the working area. This workuses octrees to discretize both the original CAD model and the 3D scanned geometry and to comparethem in the process of identifying the mismatching volumes. Firstly, the presented software recursivelysubdivides the bounding box of the nominal solid model into eight octants at every iteration, dividingevery edge in two parts, recursively building an octree representation. For each depth level of the octree,the program checks whether the nodes intersect at least one triangle of the scanned model and only inthis case the node is marked as part of the model. This process proceeds until the desired resolution isreached. After this first step, the result is a compound of cubes that represents the shell of the scannedmodel. Secondly, the software deals with the scanned surface, which has to be converted in an octree too.To compute a boolean difference between the two octrees it is necessary that they are fully filled, so theone representing the scan must be expanded into the inside of the component. For this reason, DUOADDuses a ray–triangle intersecting algorithm to classify the leaf nodes of the octrees that are inside the shelland those outside the shell. If the number of intersections between the ray — traced from the node center— and the mesh is odd, then the node belongs to the volume inside the meshed surface. Otherwise, itbelongs to the surrounding volume. The data structures of the two octrees need to be consistent — i.e.they must have a coherent number of levels and leaves. An iterative algorithm has been developed inorder to uniform the octrees data structures. To perform the boolean comparison, DUOADD scans overthe data structure of both octrees at the same time and checks — with a NOR operation — whether thenodes are marked as “inside node” in both the octrees or not. The result of this comparison representsthe damaged spots. Once the analysis result is obtained, DUOADD joins all the nodes representing thedamage into a single solid body that can be exported in various file format as STEP, IGES or VTK.DUOADD allows to approach the repair problem from a new point of view and provides a powerful toolto obtain a solid model used to add the new material. Authors successfully employed DUOADD to repairdie injection molds and there are many other applications that could benefit from the use of this software.Many improvements are expected in the near future such as the binary encoding of the octree structureand the smoothing of the exported solid body shape.
II International Conference on Simulation for Additive Manufacturing
Barcelona
International Centre for NumericalMethods in Engineering (CIMNE)
978-84-949194-8-0
Perini, M.; Bosetti, P.
DUOADD: a software to detect and export damages of 3D scanned objects / Perini, M.; Bosetti, P.. - ELETTRONICO. - (2019), pp. 391-402. ((Intervento presentato al convegno Sim-AM tenutosi a Pavia nel 12/09/2019.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11572/248854
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