Anticipation occurs when the future is used in action. The anticipatory processes that allow the future to become part of actions in the present may be either internal or external. Watching a weather forecast and behaving accordingly is to use an external model; actions taken on the basis of subjectively constructed psychological expectations are internal. It is our thesis that behavior is primarily anticipatory, while reactive behavior is only a secondary – albeit important – component of behavior. Therefore, behavior is almost always goal-oriented rather than being stimulus-driven. Anticipation comes in many different guises. The simplest distinction is between explicit and implicit anticipation. Explicit anticipations are those of which the system is aware. Implicit anticipations, by contrast, work below the threshold of awareness. Anticipatory systems show forms of impredicativity, that is the presence of self-referential cycles in their constitution. The main distinction within self-referential systems is between incomplete and complete forms of self-reference. Logical forms of self-reference are typically incomplete because they need an external interpreter. Complete forms of self-reference do not require an external interpreter because all their components are ‘defined’ – that is ‘produced’ – within the system itself.
|Titolo del volume contenente il saggio:||Handbook of anticipation|
|Luogo di edizione:||Dordrecht|
|Anno di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||02.1 Saggio su volume miscellaneo o Capitolo di libro (Essay or Book Chapter)|
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