The fourth century represents a key moment in Phocian history: the Phocians experimented their rise and fall during the so called Third Sacred War (357-346 BC). During the first years of this conflict, they seized and exploited the sanctuary of Delphi; in this time, they also placed new monuments in the sanctuary. Studying these monuments and the spatial politics they convey allows us to catch some glimpses about Phocian attitude both to their past and to their present: in fact, in fourth century Delphi the Phocians set up statues that celebrated both the winners of an archaic battle against the Thessalians (Hdt. 8.27 ff) and the winners of a contemporary battle fought against the Thebans (Diod. 16.30). Celebrating the old victory, they connect to their archaic past (continuity), celebrating the contemporary victory against the new enemy (the Thebans), they reaffirm their new policy (change). The position of these monuments in the sanctuary reflects these attitudes. One of the monuments that are referred to was studied by G. Daux: it consists in some remains including the base with the traces of the statues’ feet and a fragmentary dedication. The base can be dated to between the second half of the 4th cent. and the first half of the 3rd cent. BC both on the basis of the anathyroses (as Anne Jacquemin noted) and on the basis of palaeography (as Denis Rousset observed after having seen the pictures I sent him). Daux noted that these remains could be identified with one of the offerings dedicated by the Phocians at Delphi and at Abai after an archaic battle won against the Thessalians (Hdt. 8. 27 ff and Paus. 10.1.10). There was a big debate about which one of the offerings, given that the sources cite more than one. Moreover, one cannot neglect the possibility that the monument was erected after another Phocian-Thessalian battle, which took place in the 4th cent. BC, more exactly in the first years of the so-called Third Sacred War. It was the battle of Argolas (modern Mendenitsa?), referred to by Diodorus (16.30) and won by the Phocians in 355, as already Pomtow noted. My paper argues that it is not necessary and perhaps unadvisable to choose between the old and the new victory. If we interpret the monument in the light of the spatial politics in Delphi, it seems quite clear that it celebrated the new victory hinting also at the old one: in fact, it is highly probable that it was originally placed between a Theban and a Thessalian 4th century dedication, who were in fact the most important opponents of the Phocians during the Third Sacred War. The three monuments performed therefore a sort of “war between monuments . The Phocians dedicated an anathema to the heroes of their national saga against Thessalians and to the generals who won against the Thebans in Argolas: i.e. against the old and the new enemies. Through the position of the monuments, they express both continuity and change in their attitude to the past.
Continuity and change in Phocian spatial politics: commemorating old and new victories in 4th century Delphi / Franchi, Elena. - STAMPA. - (2018), pp. 35-69.
|Titolo:||Continuity and change in Phocian spatial politics: commemorating old and new victories in 4th century Delphi|
|Titolo del volume contenente il saggio:||Les questions de l'espace au IVe siècle av. J.-C.: continuités, ruptures, reprises|
|Luogo di edizione:||Besançon|
|Casa editrice:||Université de Franche-Comté|
|Anno di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Citazione:||Continuity and change in Phocian spatial politics: commemorating old and new victories in 4th century Delphi / Franchi, Elena. - STAMPA. - (2018), pp. 35-69.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista (Journal article)|
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