Background: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling motor symptom occurring mainly in the advanced stage of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: This review outlines the clinical manifestation of FOG and its relationship with levodopa treatment, the differential diagnosis with respect to other neurodegenerative and secondary forms and the available treatment. Results: We report the proposed models explaining the FOG phenomenon and summarize the available knowledge on FOG etiology’s potential genetic contribution. A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying FOG in PD is essential to find the best therapy. Different treatment options exist but are still not entirely successful, and often a combination of approaches is needed. Conclusions: Further studies focusing on the potential genetic role in FOG may increase the knowledge on the FOG etiology and pathophysiology, allowing further individualized treatment strategies for this very disabling phenomenon.

Freezing of gait: overview on etiology, treatment, and future directions / Falla, M.; Cossu, G.; Di Fonzo, A.. - In: NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 1590-1874. - 43:3(2022), pp. 1627-1639. [10.1007/s10072-021-05796-w]

Freezing of gait: overview on etiology, treatment, and future directions

Falla M.;Cossu G.;
2022

Abstract

Background: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling motor symptom occurring mainly in the advanced stage of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: This review outlines the clinical manifestation of FOG and its relationship with levodopa treatment, the differential diagnosis with respect to other neurodegenerative and secondary forms and the available treatment. Results: We report the proposed models explaining the FOG phenomenon and summarize the available knowledge on FOG etiology’s potential genetic contribution. A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying FOG in PD is essential to find the best therapy. Different treatment options exist but are still not entirely successful, and often a combination of approaches is needed. Conclusions: Further studies focusing on the potential genetic role in FOG may increase the knowledge on the FOG etiology and pathophysiology, allowing further individualized treatment strategies for this very disabling phenomenon.
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Falla, M.; Cossu, G.; Di Fonzo, A.
Freezing of gait: overview on etiology, treatment, and future directions / Falla, M.; Cossu, G.; Di Fonzo, A.. - In: NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 1590-1874. - 43:3(2022), pp. 1627-1639. [10.1007/s10072-021-05796-w]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11572/343389
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