The paper describes a unified automatic procedure for the detection of roof planes in gridded height data. The procedure exploits the Blake-Zisserman (BZ) model for segmentation in both 2D and 1D, and aims to detect, to model and to label roof planes. The BZ model relies on the minimization of a functional that depends on first- and second-order derivatives, free discontinuities and free gradient discontinuities. During the minimization, the relative strength of each competitor is controlled by a set of weight parameters. By finding the minimum of the approximated BZ functional, one obtains: (1) an approximation of the data that is smoothed solely within regions of homogeneous gradient, and (2) an explicit detection of the discontinuities and gradient discontinuities of the approximation. Firstly, input data is segmented using the 2D BZ. The maps of data and gradient discontinuities are used to isolate building candidates and planar patches (i.e. regions with homogeneous gradient) that correspond to roof planes. Connected regions that can not be considered as buildings are filtered according to both patch dimension and distribution of the directions of the normals to the boundary. The 1D BZ model is applied to the curvilinear coordinates of boundary points of building candidates in order to reduce the effect of data granularity when the normals are evaluated. In particular, corners are preserved and can be detected by means of gradient discontinuity. Lastly, a total least squares model is applied to estimate the parameters of the plane that best fits the points of each planar patch (orthogonal regression with planar model). Refinement of planar patches is performed by assigning those points that are close to the boundaries to the planar patch for which a given proximity measure assumes the smallest value. The proximity measure is defined to account for the variance of a fitting plane and a weighted distance of a point from the plane. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by means of its application to urban digital surface models characterized by different spatial resolutions. Results are presented and discussed along with some promising developments.
Roof planes detection via a second-order variational model / Benciolini, Battista; Ruggiero, Valeria; Vitti, Alfonso; Zanetti, Massimo. - In: ISPRS JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING. - ISSN 0924-2716. - 138(2018), pp. 101-120.
|Titolo:||Roof planes detection via a second-order variational model|
|Autori:||Benciolini, Battista; Ruggiero, Valeria; Vitti, Alfonso; Zanetti, Massimo|
|Titolo del periodico:||ISPRS JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING|
|Anno di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-85042198040|
|Codice identificativo WOS:||WOS:000428824300009|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.01.022|
|Citazione:||Roof planes detection via a second-order variational model / Benciolini, Battista; Ruggiero, Valeria; Vitti, Alfonso; Zanetti, Massimo. - In: ISPRS JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING. - ISSN 0924-2716. - 138(2018), pp. 101-120.|
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